Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban) is an atypical antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Its chemical name is β-keto-3-chloro-N-tert-butylamphetamine, a substituted cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), as well as substituted amphetamine. Its primary action is thought to be NE-DA reuptake inhibition. It binds selectively to the dopamine transporter, but its behavioural effects have often been attributed to its inhibition of NE reuptake. It also acts as a nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are used as anesthesia for animals and, less commonly, for humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA channel blocker. Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimer's disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate receptors.
Naloxone is an opioid inverse agonist drug developed by Sankyo in the 1960s.Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opiate overdose, for example heroin or morphine overdose. It is marketed under various trademarks including Narcan, Nalone, and Narcanti.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs, and communicates with the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is close to the area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle & is outside of the BBB. The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include ACh, DA, histamine (H-1R), substance P, and 5-HT. The BBB is not as developed here, and drugs such as DA may stimulate the CTZ. ORs control the CTZ.