“Gottfried von Berlichingen (c. 1480-1562) also known as Götz of the Iron Hand, was a German Imperial Knight and mercenary. “During the siege of the city of Landshut, he lost his right arm when enemy cannon fire forced his sword against him. He had a mechanical prosthetic iron replacement made, capable of holding objects from a sword to a feather pen.”
Credit: Science Museum, London An early example of prosthetics: an artificial arm made of iron, from around 1560-1600. Arround this time, prosthetic arms were often fitted to knights so they could hold up shields in battle, rather than to assist in everyday life
In 1800, James Potts, a man from London, England, designed a prosthesis made of a wooden shank and socket, steel knee joint, and an articulated foot. The articulated foot was controlled by catgut tendons that ran from the knee to the ankle. Potts’ prosthesis became known as the “Anglesey Leg” after the Marquess of Anglesey, who lost his leg in the Battle of Waterloo and wore the leg.
Known as the clapper because of the sound its articulated toes with artificial tendons made, this is a later version of the Anglesea leg, which was widely used by Napoleonic War veterans, and designed by James Potts in 1800. It became the model for the first mass produced artificial limbs, including the American leg.
From the linked page, "A display case in Room 5 of Block 5, pictured above, is filled with the artificial legs and crutches which were brought to the Auschwitz camp by incoming prisoners. My tour guide in 1998 explained that the wounded Polish war veterans from World War I accounted for most of this huge collection."
ca. 1865-70, [Pvt. Samuel H. Decker, Company I, 4th US artillery] Civil War veteran Samuel Decker designed and built his own prosthetics after losing his limbs in combat. With them he could eat and write with relative ease. Decker was made Doorkeeper of the U.S. house of Representatives after recovering from his injury.
Despite the ban on trade, some Europeans like British Major-General Horatio Gordon Robley (pictured below) were able to acquire an impressive collection of Mokomokai heads. These days, Mokomokai is no longer practiced among the Maori. However, there has been a marginally successful effort to return the remaining the heads to New Zealand.