Copernican Universe , 1660. With the sun at the center; Copernicus appears at lower right and Ptolemy at lower left. Copperplate engraving from Andreas Cellarius' 'Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonia Macrocosmica', published in 1660 in Amsterdam.
Babylonian astronomy is noted for their detailed, and continuous, records of astronomical phenomenon such as eclipses, positions of the planets and rise and setting of the Moon. These records date back to 800 B.C. and are the oldest scientific documents in existence.