Negro, colored, black, Afro-American, African American have been used as expressions of identity for Black Americans. In 1988, Reverend Jesse Jackson launched a campaign to encourage use of the term “African American” as a sense of ethnic identity among Black Americans. Civil Rights Leaders and Politicians joined Jackson in promoting this terminology change, and the use of “African American” was adopted by major newspapers and public agencies around the country. (The Charlotte Observer,1989)
Howling Wolf, Southern Cheyenne Warrior, incarcerated in the old Spanish Fort, St. Augustine, Florida as a prisoner of war by the United States Government. Photo: ca. 1875. - Part of the Lawrence T. Jones III Texas photography collection.
Walter S. McAfee is the African American mathematician and physicist who first calculated the speed of the moon. McAfee participated in Project Diana in the 1940s - a U.S. Army program, created to determine whether a high frequency radio signal could penetrate the earth’s outer atmosphere. To test this, scientists wanted to bounce a radar signal off the moon and back to earth. But the moon was a swiftly moving target, impossible to hit without knowing its exact speed.
1963 - The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed as an act of racially motivated terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, kills four girls and marks a turning point in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. It helps build support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Freedman's Cemetery This area of Dallas County was settled by former African American slaves shortly after the conclusion of the American Civil War. Freedman's Cemetery, a graveyard for African Americans, was established in 1869 on one acre of land purchased by trustee Sam Eakins. http://www.texasescapes.com/Cemeteries/Dallas-TX-Freedmans-Cemetery.htm