Herbert W. Jones, left, who is one of only a few surviving Buffalo Soldiers in the country, talks about his service in the Army's all-black 92nd "Buffalo Soldier" Division to Bud Fisher, right, while he records it on tape on September 28, 2011. Mr. Fisher has interviewed many veterans as part of a national project.
Despite the participation of African American women in all aspects of home-front activity during World War II, advertisements, recruitment posters, and newsreels portrayed largely white women as army nurses, defense plant workers, concerned mothers, and steadfast wives. This sea of white faces left for posterity images such as Rosie the Riveter, obscuring the contributions that African American women made to the war effort.
SARAH SPENCER WASHINGTON June 6 1889-March 23 1953 Cosmetic entrepreneur. Started a cosmetics empire that turned her into one of of America's first black millionaires. Born in Berkley, Virginia, to Joshua and Ellen (Mother Spencer) Phillips, Sarah received her early education in the public schools of Berkley and attended the Lincoln Prep School in Philadelphia.