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Alexander Fleming (1881-1955): This Scottish doctor was growing bacteria on petri dishes when he noticed that some dishes had grown moldy. Before he threw out the dishes, he noticed that the mold seemed to have killed the bacteria he was growing. He called the substance Penicillin, and it was the very first antibiotic.

Florence Nightingale ~ "Florence Nightingale (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed 'The Lady with the Lamp' after her habit of making rounds at night. An Anglican, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse."

Christiaan Barnard (1922-2001) Christiaan Neethling Barnard was a cardiac surgeon from South Africa and was the first doctor to perform a human heart to heart transplant.

From retrogoddess: Bettie Page’s mugshot from October 29th 1972. Many of Bettie’s fans don’t seem to know that she left the pinup world and became a religious fanatic. Years later she was diagnosed as schizophrenic and eventually spent over 11 years in a state mental institution because she stabbed three people. A husband and wife the first time, and her 66 year old roommate the second time because she said “God inspired her to do it”. Bettie was an interesting woman with a turbulent life.

Saint Elmo Brady (December 22, 1884 - December 25, 1966) was the first African American to obtain a Ph.D. degree in chemistry in the United States, which he earned in 1916 from the University of Illinois. He taught at Tuskegee, Fisk, Howard and Tougaloo, and was the first African American admitted to Phi Lambda Upsilon, the chemistry honor society. #TodayInBlackHistory

Former child actor, star of "Our Gang" ,Carl Switzer (Alfalfa) was shot to death and killed in a fight on Jan. 21, 1959. He was 33 years old.

This German woman and her baby are two survivors of the "Lotz Death March" which involved all the ethnic Germans who lived in that Polish city. Their eviction in the middle of winter caused many of them to expire. The two in the photo are among the ten who survived, and reached Berlin, out of a group of 150. Dec 14,1945.

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953). The final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, the U.S. successfully concluded World War II; in the aftermath of the conflict, tensions with the Soviet Union increased, marking the start of the Cold War.

Dr. Mary Edwards Walker was the first woman awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, for her work as a surgeon during the Civil War.

The woman who discovered what the universe is made of has not so much as received a memorial plaque. Every high school kid knows that Isaac Newton discovered gravity Charles Darwin discovered evolution, & Albert Einstein discovered the relativity of time. But when it comes to the composition of our universe, the textbooks simply say that the most abundant atom in the universe is hydrogen. And no one ever wonders how we know. Jeremy Knowles on the lack of recognition Cecilia Payne receives.

Milena Jesenska, Czech journalist, writer, editor and translator, who refused to abandon her Jewish friends and was deported with several of them to Ravensbruck concentration camp, where she died.

Herbert Clay Scurlock was a biochemist who pioneered the application of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and the use of x-ray to diagnose dental problems

Henrietta Lacks was an African-American woman who was the unwitting source of cells (from her cancerous tumor) which were cultured by George Otto Gey to create an immortal cell line for medical research. This is now known as the HeLa cell line.

PEOPLE.comfrom PEOPLE.com

President Obama Briefed Bush, Clinton on bin Laden's Death

Former Presidents Obama, Clinton, Bush

BuzzFeedfrom BuzzFeed

Extraordinary Women Of History You Need To Know Now

Fe del Mundo, Harvard Medical School's first female student , was admitted because she was brilliant...and because they didn't realize she was a woman. Del Mundo founded the first pediatric hospital in the Philippines. She attended nine years before enrollment was opened to women.

This lovely southern gentleman is Harry T. Burn; the man who was the deciding vote in passing the 19th amendment, giving women the right to vote on August 18, 1920. What a beautiful face.