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Roman testudo (tortoise) formation.  In Ancient Roman warfare, the testudo or tortoise formation was a formation used commonly by the Roman Legions during battles, particularly sieges. Testudo is the Latin word for "tortoise". The Greek term for this formation is "chelone" and during the Byzantine era, it seems to have evolved to what military manuals of the era call the "foulkon".

'Rome, Sweet Rome': Could a Single Marine Unit Destroy the Roman Empire?

Roman testudo (tortoise) formation. In Ancient Roman warfare, the testudo or tortoise formation was a formation used commonly by the Roman Legions during battles, particularly sieges. Testudo is the Latin word for "tortoise". The Greek term for this formation is "chelone" and during the Byzantine era, it seems to have evolved to what military manuals of the era call the "foulkon".

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/cristinaravara/julius-caesar-in-ariminum-rimini-italy  Late Roman shields

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/cristinaravara/julius-caesar-in-ariminum-rimini-italy Late Roman shields

Ancient Greek Army Weapons | Replica Ancient Greek armour and helmet: NEN Gallery

Ancient Greek Army Weapons | Replica Ancient Greek armour and helmet: NEN Gallery

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