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    • Bartłomiej Adamowicz

      Tecumseh - wódz północnoamerykańskiego plemienia indiańskiego Szaunisów (Szawanezów), przywódca wojskowy, mówca, polityk, generał brytyjski. Na początku XIX w. był zwolennikiem utworzenia szerokiej konfederacji plemion indiańskich na południe od Wielkich Jezior,…

    • Anne Smith

      ❖ July 2, 1809 ❖ Shawnee Chief Tecumseh calls on all Indians to unite and resist. Together, Tecumseh argued, the various tribes had enough strength to stop the whites from taking further land. By 1810, he had organized the Ohio Valley Confederacy, which united Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago, Menominee, Ottawa, and Wyandot nations.

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    ❖ December 27, 1932 ❖ At the height of the Great Depression, thousands turn out for the opening of Radio City Music Hall, a magnificent Art Deco theater in New York City. Since its opening, more than 300 million people have gone to Radio City to enjoy movies, stage shows, concerts, and special events. Today, Radio City Music Hall remains the largest indoor theater in the world.

    ❖ December 1, 1955 ❖ In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks is jailed for refusing to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man, a violation of the city's racial segregation laws. The successful Montgomery Bus Boycott, organized by a young Baptist minister named Martin Luther King, Jr., followed Park's historic act of civil disobedience.

    ❖ January 30, 1972 ❖ In Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 13 unarmed civil rights demonstrators are shot dead by British Army paratroopers in an event that became known as "Bloody Sunday." The protesters, all Northern Catholics, were marching in protest of the British policy of internment of suspected Irish nationalists. British authorities had ordered the march banned, and sent troops to confront the demonstrators when it went ahead.

    ❖ January 25, 1924 ❖ The first Winter Olympics take off in style at Chamonix in the French Alps. Spectators were thrilled by the ski jump and bobsled as well as 12 other events involving a total of six sports. Scandinavians dominated the speed rinks and slopes, and Norway won the unofficial team competition with 17 medals. The United States came in third, winning its only gold medal with Charles Jewtraw's victory in the 500-meter speed-skating event.

    ❖ January 15, 1967 ❖ At the Los Angeles Coliseum, the Green Bay Packers beat the Kansas City Chiefs in the first-ever world championship game of American football. In that historic first game--played before a non-sell-out crowd of 61,946 people--Green Bay scored three touchdowns in the second half to defeat Kansas City 35-10. For their win, each member of the Packers collected $15,000: the largest single-game share in the history of team sports.

    ❖ January 11, 1908 ❖ U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt declares the massive Grand Canyon in northwestern Arizona a national monument. "Let this great wonder of nature remain as it now is," he declared. "You cannot improve on it. But what you can do is keep it for your children, your children’s children, and all who come after you, as the one great sight which every American should see."

    ❖ January 10, 1901 ❖ On this day, a drilling derrick at Spindletop Hill near Beaumont, Texas, produces an enormous gusher of crude oil, coating the landscape for hundreds of feet and signaling the advent of the American oil industry. Beaumont became a "black gold" boomtown, its population tripling in three months. The town filled up with oil workers, investors, merchants and con men (leading some people to dub it "Swindletop").

    ❖ November 29, 1947 ❖ Despite strong Arab opposition, the United Nations votes for the partition of Palestine and the creation of an independent Jewish state.

    ❖ November 25, 1963 ❖ Three days after his assassination in Dallas, Texas, John F. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Leaders of 99 nations gathered for the state funeral. Kennedy was buried with full military honors on a slope below Arlington House, where an eternal flame was lit by his widow to forever mark the grave.

    ❖ November 22, 1988 ❖ In the presence of members of Congress and the media, the Northrop B-2 "stealth" bomber is shown publicly for the first time at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. Designed with stealth characteristics that would allow it to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses unnoticed, at the time of its public unveiling, the B-2 had not even been flown on a test flight.

    ❖ November 22, 1963 ❖ John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, is assassinated while traveling through Dallas, Texas, in an open-top convertible. Vice President Lyndon Johnson, who was three cars behind President Kennedy in the motorcade, was sworn in as the 36th president of the United States at 2:39 p.m. He took the presidential oath of office aboard Air Force One as it sat on the runway at Dallas Love Field airport.

    ❖ August 6, 1945 ❖ At 8:16 a.m. Japanese time, the American B-29 bomber "Enola Gay" drops the world's first atom bomb over the city of Hiroshima. Approximately 80,000 people are killed as a direct result of the blast, and another 35,000 are injured. U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the decision to use the atom bomb to end the war in order to prevent what he predicted would be a much greater loss of life were the United States to invade the Japanese mainland.

    ❖ August 1, 1961 ❖ Amusement park lovers "head for the thrills" as Six Flags Over Texas opens. Located on 212 acres in Arlington, Texas, the park was the first to feature log flume and mine train rides and later, the first 360-degree looping roller coaster, modern parachute drop and man-made river rapids ride. The park also pioneered the concept of all-inclusive admission price. During its opening year, a day at Six Flags cost $2.75 for an adult and $2.25 for a child.

    ❖ July 29, 1958 ❖ U.S. Congress passes legislation establishing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a civilian agency responsible for coordinating America's activities in space. NASA was created in response to the Soviet Union's October 4, 1957 launch of its first satellite, "Sputnik I." The United States prided itself on being at the forefront of technology, and, embarrassed, immediately began developing a response, signaling the start of the U.S.-Soviet space race.

    ❖ July 24, 1911 ❖ American archeologist Hiram Bingham gets his first look at Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca settlement in Peru, believed to have been a summer retreat for Inca leaders, whose civilization was virtually wiped out by Spanish invaders in the 16th century. For hundreds of years afterwards, its existence was a secret known only to the peasants living in the region.

    ❖ July 20, 1969 ❖ At 10:56 p.m. EDT, American astronaut Neil Armstrong, 240,000 miles from Earth, speaks these words to more than a billion people listening at home: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Stepping off the lunar landing module Eagle, Armstrong became the first human to walk on the surface of the moon.

    ❖ July 16, 1945 ❖ At 5:29:45 a.m., the Manhattan Project comes to an explosive end as the first atom bomb is successfully tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico, 120 miles south of Santa Fe. Scientists and dignitaries had removed themselves 10,000 yards away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretched 40,000 feet into the air and generated the destructive power of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT. The tower on which the bomb sat when detonated was vaporized.

    ❖ July 10, 1925 ❖ In Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called "Monkey Trial" begins with John Thomas Scopes, a young high school science teacher, accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law. William J Bryan, Democratic presidential candidate and fundamentalist hero, assisted the prosecution. Attorney Clarence Darrow joined the ACLU in the defense, and the stage was set for one of the most famous trials in U.S. history.

    ❖ July 4, 1776 ❖ In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims the independence of the United States of America from Great Britain and its king. The declaration came 442 days after the first volleys of the American Revolution were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts and marked an ideological expansion of the conflict that would eventually encourage France's intervention on behalf of the Patriots.

    ❖ June 25, 1876 ❖ Native American forces led by Chiefs Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull defeat the U.S. Army troops of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer in a bloody battle near southern Montana's Little Bighorn River. The Battle of Little Bighorn--also called Custer's Last Stand--marked the most decisive Native American victory and the worst U.S. Army defeat in the long Plains Indian War.

    ❖ June 16, 1884 ❖ The first roller coaster in America opens at Coney Island, in Brooklyn, New York. Known as a switchback railway, it was the brainchild of LaMarcus Thompson, traveled approximately six miles per hour and cost a nickel to ride. The new entertainment was an instant success and by the turn of the century there were hundreds of roller coasters around the country.

    ❖ June 14, 1777 ❖ The Continental Congress adopts a resolution stating that "the flag of the United States be thirteen alternate stripes red and white" and that "the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation." The national flag, which became known as the "Stars and Stripes," was based on the "Grand Union" flag, a banner carried by the Continental Army in 1776 that also consisted of 13 red and white stripes.

    ❖ June 9, 1973 ❖ With a spectacular victory at the Belmont Stakes, Secretariat becomes the first horse since Citation in 1948 to win America's coveted Triple Crown--the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness, and the Belmont Stakes. In one of the finest performances in racing history, Secretariat, ridden by Ron Turcotte, completed the 1.5-mile race in 2 minutes and 24 seconds, a dirt-track record for that distance.

    ❖ June 6, 1944 ❖ D-Day: the day the Allied powers crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, beginning the liberation of Western Europe from Nazi control during World War II. Within three months, the northern part of France would be freed and the invasion force would be preparing to enter Germany, where they would meet up with Soviet forces moving in from the east.

    ❖ June 1, 1980 ❖ CNN (Cable News Network), the world's first 24-hour television news network, makes its debut. The network signed on at 6 p.m. EST from its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, with a lead story about the attempted assassination of civil rights leader Vernon Jordan. CNN went on to change the notion that news could only be reported at fixed times throughout the day.