1940s - Puerto Rico (factory girls) The U.S. Navy bought up significant tracts of land and build multiple military bases on the island(s). As the war ends, many veterans (and their families) looking for work, take advantage of cheaper air travel and move predominantly to New York and Florida. The passing of the Gag Law signaled Marin’s transition away from independence and prohibited pro-independence rhetoric. Marin was elected governor and Operation Bootstrap saw a surge in jobs.
- New York (Rosario Dawson at the Sin City premiere)
1990s - Puerto Rico Another Miss Universe title and another vote in the favor of maintaining commonwealth status. Spanish was declared the only official language of Puerto Rico and Juan Mari Bras, founder of the Puerto Rican Socialist Party, renounced his U.S. Citizenship as a sign of activism and to better clarify the status of Puerto Ricans.
1950s - Puerto Rico (Lolita Lebron) A nation divided on the issue of independence from the United States, Puerto Rico was granted Commonwealth status and their own constitution. This change saw two different attacks on Washington; the Truman assassination attempt at the Blair House and Lolita Lebron and her two compatriots ‘shot up’ Congress. 1953 saw that largest wave of migration, with over 69 thousand leaving the island.
1930s - Puerto Rico (Julia de Burgos ) The economic growth tied to American investment in sugar and tobacco failed to bring about social change, as unemployment sat around 65 percent. Pedro Albizu Campos, elected president of the Nationalist Party, and Luis Munoz Marin, founder the Democratic Popular Party, are both central figures in Puerto Rican history, each hoping to bring about change in their own ways. Marin’s Democratic Popular Party initial starts as a pro-independence movement.
1910s - Puerto Rico (Luisa Capetillo) After the Spanish-American war, Cuba’s declaration of independence was acknowledged, but Puerto Rico was taken over by the United States, due to its key location and fortifications. The transition to the American dollar and English language marked a major cultural shift away from the once Spanish colony, but while the transfer of power was not met with hostility, many did not view it as liberation, but rather a continuation of foreign rule.
1920s - New York (Victoria Hernandez) East/ Spanish Harlem has a large enclave of Spanish speakers and the first Latin record store in 1927. The Porto Rican Brotherhood of America was founded the year before, addressing collective national interests, especially civil rights advocacy. Puerto Rico and the Diaspora working on the same things at the same time, in different ways.
2010s - (Brenda Jiménez) Puerto Rico 70 Billion dollars in debt, 45% poverty rate, sales tax increase from 7 to 11.5%, lowest labor costs anywhere under U.S. jurisdiction (65-80% of the U.S. average), Most states facing debt can declare bankruptcy and refinance/restructure the loan payments, fight for independence/statehood becomes more important now.
- New York (Rosie Perez) Both Ricky Martin and Jennifer Lopez had hit songs in This trend in U. pop culture--the so-called "Latin Wave"--draws attention to the diverse Latin cultures that have existed in the United States.