Portrait of Zitkala-Sa by Gertrude Kasebier, about 1898. Zitkala-Sa was the pen name of writer and activist Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (1876-1938). She exposed the hardships faced by students at Native American boarding schools by writing about her own experiences as a student and as a teacher. Zitkala-Sa also published a book of tribal folklore called Old Indian Legends. She also founded the National Council of American Indians, which was trans-tribal, to lobby for better treatment for all.
1880s Ojibway (First Nations) or Métis Snowshoes at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto - This was given to Dr. Charles Trick Currelly, first director of the Royal Ontario Museum (and whose photograph appears in the lower left corner), when he was in Manitoba as a Methodist lay preacher in 1888-1889.
1950s Ojibway (First Nations) Fish spoon at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto - From the curators' comments: "Cooked fish meat is pounded into powder as part of the preservation process. After initial pounding to break down the fibres, the meat is put into a pan and further milled with the underside of the fish spoon. Fish powder is stored in bags. In preparation for eating, it is mixed with fish oil and berries."
1954 Ojibway (First Nations) Cradleboard at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto - From the curators' comments: "From infancy until three years of age, children are carried in cradleboards....The cradleboard is carried on the back and when not being transported, the board is leaned against a tree or lodge wall. The extending hoop supports a cloth cover which protects the child from the elements. If the board should fall, the hoop would prevent the child from hitting the ground."