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Illustration shows the mechanism of LTP and LTD. Normally, the NMDA receptor in the postsynaptic neuron is activated by glutamate binding, but only after depolarization removes an inhibitory magnesium ion. Once the magnesium is removed, calcium can enter the cell. In response to an increase in intracellular calcium, AMPA receptors are inserted into the plasma membrane, which amplifies the signal resulting in LTP. LDP occurs when low-frequency stimulation results in the activation of a…

from ArchDaily

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We have identified a unified signaling pathway based on activation of innate immune system which results in an inflammatory cascade resulting in POAG. We have identified that cell trauma causes low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid to start the pathway. Prevention of degradation of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid by potent hyaluronidase inhibitor could be novel therapy and the first therapy directly aimed at the cause of POAG.

The Wnt Signalling Cascade and the Adherens Junction Complex in #Craniopharyngioma Tumorigenesis (Endocrine Pathology, 30 Oct 2014). Abstract here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355426

zinc L-carnosine - an artificial molecule which works in "animal studies, Zinc-Carnosine has been shown to reduce the inflammatory cascade that follows irritation and injury to the stomach lining. This includes a blunting of genetic pro-inflammatory signaling and of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. a highly bioavailable source of elemental zinc. " http://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/contents/view_online-exclusives/2011-10-03/digestive-ingredient-solutions#sthash.QNd1KEMN.dpuf

I took a tentacle from Drosera capensis alba (albino) and typical to see the differences in pigmentation. It's also interesting to think about the complex signaling cascades that occur in these glands which more recent research has suggested. A several year old study led to the hypothesis that the folding of Drosera leaves is a delayed chemonastic response to prey rather than a thigmotropic response to moving stimuli (Nakamura et. al. 2013). #drosera #capensis #botany by aafrisbey