19th Century European Sampler Stitched By A I CHALMERS Dated 1878
NOTHING NEW Beginning in the 19th century, European and American demand for ivory products—everything from billiard balls to piano keys—soared. This photograph from 1912 shows a bull elephant that was killed in a hunting expedition. PHOTOGRAPH BY CARL E. AKELEY, NATIONAL GEOGRAHPIC
Eighteenth-century European explorers took great interest in the new plants and animals they found. Some likened the kauri tree to the northern hemisphere cedar. This drawing of a kauri tree, with the female and male cones on either side, was made by an unknown artist and published in Frenchman Julien Crozet’s 1783 book Voyage à la mer du sud. Crozet was the second-in-command on explorer Marc Joseph Marion du Fresne’s voyage to New Zealand in 1771–72.
1) 17th century European example; angular, downcurving shank slotted for the five-point rowel, sidestraps of triangular section, large buckle flaring to spatulate terminals, the whole decorated with banding, scrollwork and notched borders. 2) A Mexican spur, 17th or 18th century; long downcurving shank with scrolling animal-head branches, 5 inch six-point rowell, sidestraps worked with scrollwork and fluting. 3) A silver spur, 18th century, possibly American,
Ethiopian Coptic Bound Manuscript | "It is a coptic bound Ethiopian manuscript probably from the 19th century, which makes it fairly “young” for a hand-copied codex, yet it demonstrates all the hallmarks of medieval European manuscripts: it is hand-written on vellum (animal skin, probably calf, sheep or goat), it is illuminated, and each page has prickings that were used for ruling (or lining)."