Troisième croisade ; mésintelligence, rupture et guerre contre Richard Cœur de Lion (1189 – 1199)
November 27, 1095: Pope Urban II Orders First Crusade On this day in 1095, Pope Urban II gave rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to wage war against Muslims in order to reclaim the Holy Land. Pope Urban’s brutal and bloody war was the first of seven major military campaigns, known as the Crusades, fought over the next two centuries.
"Let those who have been fighting against their own brothers and kinsfolk now fight lawfully against the barbarians. This land which you inhabit is too narrow for your large population; nor does it abound in wealth. Hence it is that you murder one another, that you wage war, and that frequently you perish by mutual wounds. Therefore enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulchre; wrest that land from the wicked, and subject it to yourselves." Pope Urban II preaching for the First Crusade