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The first Comarca Indigena, official Indigenous territory in Panama was created in 1938 in the San Blas archipelago by the Kuna people. In the province of Darien, the Embera and Waounan people joined forces and organized themselves politically to create the Comarca Embera-Waounan in 1983. It encompasses the districts of Cemaco and Sambu

The total population of the comarca according to the census of 1990 was 14,659 Embera and 2,605 Waounan people. This total for the Comarca comprised 37% of the total for the country. The rest of the Embera and Waounan live outside the comarca as far away as Panama city.

Kuna Yala is an autonomous territory or comarca in Panama, inhabited by the Kuna indigenous people. The name means Kuna-land or Kuna mountain in the Kuna language. The area was formerly known as San Blas. The capital of Kuna Yala is El Porvenir.