An unknown photographer captured this New York mother and her two babies in an old-law tenement apartment in 1916. Like most flats in old-law tenements (so named because they predate “new” turn-of-the-century laws mandating better living conditions per apartment), it’s dark, squalid, and unventilated. That window probably looks out onto a narrow courtyard, if not just another room in the same apartment.
December 1911. Family of Mrs. Mette making flowers in a very dirty tenement. Josephine, 13, helps outside school hours until 9 P.M. She is soon to be 14 and expects to go to work in an embroidery factory. Says she worked in that factory all last summer. Nicholas, 6 years old and Johnnie, 8 yrs. The old work some. All together earn only 40 to 50 cents a day. Baby (20 months old) plays with the flowers, and they expect he can help a little before long. The father drives a coach irregularly.
1931, Dr. Kellogg received a grant for an experiment to raise a chimp along side a human baby. His wife had just had a baby boy, David, so they decided to raise him along side a baby chimp, Gua. Things started to go wrong when David started to become more chimp-like than Gua became human-like. He only learned a few simple words and often made chimp howls when he wanted something. After only nine months, they gave up on Gua, concerned that David would fail to grow up like a normal human…
Shaft #6 Pennsylvania, Coal Co. Clement Tiskie, (smallest boy next to right hand end) is a nipper. Arthur Havard, (on Clement’s right hand) is a driver. Jo Puma, (on Arthur’s right) is a nipper. Jo’s mother showed me the passport which shows Jo to be 14 years old, but he has no school certificate although working inside the mine. Frank Fleming, (boy on left of photo), a nipper. Works a mile underground from the shaft which is 500 ft. down. South Pittston, Pa.” 1/6/1911
Columbus, Georgia. April 1913. "Night Work! Group of boys, all working in Massey Hosiery Mills. Most of them had been working all day and had an hour for supper and were going back into the mill (6 p.m.) to work until 8 as they have done several nights this week and for some time past. I found four 10-year-olds and several of 11 and 12 working in the evening after supper and they said it was a regular thing..." Photo and caption by Lewis Wickes Hine.