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    United States c. 1930. A woman wearing a new inhalation mask for treating catarrh of the nose and throat.

    Portrait of Empress Bianca Maria Sforza (1472-1510), second wife of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. Painting by Bernhard Strigel (1460-1528) Dim. 76x43,5. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, inv. 4404

    Prague, August 1968

    Prague, August 21, 1968

    Victorian Childhood The Sweetshop England

    Artefacts From Pompeii Italy

    Picking Daisies Hand Coloured Photo

    Prince William County, Virginia. "Along Bull Run near Sudley Church. March 1862." Each of the dozen or so sticks lined up in front of the boys marks a grave. Wet plate glass negative by George N. Barnard.

    In the suffragette campaigns in England, women would go on hunger strikes in prison for the right to vote. The Prisoner’s Temporary Discharge of Ill Health Act of 1913 let authorities release prisoners, then re-arrest them when they got better — it became known as the “Cat-and-Mouse Act.” Advocates started to use cats as a symbol in posters like this.

    History in Photos: James McAllister. Patient under gas in a Dentist's surgery, ca. 1910

    Petrykiv necropolis near Ternopil, Ukraine. Burial n.27 discovered in 1995.

    Seaman Duane Payne is pictured as a 20-year-old seaman who served aboard the destroyer USS Bigelow. The thing that distinguished him during his service career was his ability to typed. Photo provided. Cold War / U.S. Navy / Guantanamo / USS Bigelow

    Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier in Saint Nicholas Cathedral

    Chemistry laboratory respirator. 19th-century artwork of a respirator used as a breathing apparatus in chemistry laboratories. This design dates from 1880. The wood engraving is from circa 1888.

    Thomas Johnstone Lipton (1848-1931), Scottish yachtsman. Lipton, famous for founding the Lipton tea brand, was a keen yachtsman. He competed five times in the America's Cup between 1899 and 1930. This photograph, sent by Lipton to a friend, carried an inscription dated 17 October 1902, referring to himself as skipper of his steam yacht the Erin (purchased 1898). Lipton made his fortune by investing in tea plantations to supply his chain of grocery stores, starting in Glasgow and then extending across the UK. He had been created Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) in 1901, and was made a baronet in 1902.

    Vlad the Impaler (1431-1476), ruler of Wallachia, also known by his patronymic name Dracula. He ruled as Vlad III, succeeding his father as Voivode of Wallachia in what is now part of modern Romania. He was named 'the Impaler' after he gained a reputation for cruel executions, though he is revered as a folk hero in Romania. It is thought that Vlad III's patronymic inspired the name of the vampire in Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' (1897). Artwork from the title page of the 1491 Bamberg edition of the work known as 'Dracole Wayda'.

    Martin's Improved Sphygmomanometer with its case, dating from 1920. This instrument is made from glass and mercury by S. Maw, Son and Sons. The sphygmomanometer was originally invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881. It was used to measure blood pressure; the cuff (brown) would be placed around the patient's arm whilst the physician placed their finger on the wrist to feel for the radial pulse. The cuff was inflated using the rubber bulb (black) until the pulse could no longer be felt. The level of the mercury in the glass tube (centre) would indicate the pressure in the cuff. The pressure would be released from the cuff slowly and the point at which the radial pulse returned would be read from the level of the mercury and this

    Mine rescuer. Man wearing a respirator device, goggles, and lamp, all designed for use during mine rescues. Dangers facing mine rescuers included toxic and flammable gases, as well as cave-ins and collapses. This photograph, which dates from the period 1910 to 1915, is from the Bain News Service, one of the USA's earliest news picture libraries.

    Duchenne's physiognomy studies. Woman with different facial expressions (left and right) involving coquetry (flirting) induced by electrical probes applied by French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne (1806-1875). Duchenne used the new technique of photography to record what he thought were idealised facial expressions that revealed the emotions of the soul. Photograph from the 1876 edition of Duchenne's 'Mecanisme de la physionomie humaine' (The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy, 1862). This work was subtitled 'The Electro-Physiological Analysis of the Expression of the Passions, Applicable to the Practice of the Plastic Arts'.

    Boulitte oscillometer, dating from 1910, France. This device is based on an invention by French physiologist, Michel Victor Pachon (1867-1938). It was used for measuring changes in pulsations and blood pressure of arteries of the extremities.

    Artificial jaw, marked Wekabe, dating from around 1900, Germany. This would have been used for anatomical demonstrations. Gold pegs attached to individual enamel teeth allow them to be removed and replaced. The hinge mechanism allows the two dental arches to be opened up to 180 degrees.

    Underwater breathing apparatus. Historical artwork of a 19th-century experimental underwater breathing apparatus known as 'Le Triton'. It was designed in 1808 by Frederic de Drieberg. The diver carries a metal air cylinder on his back, with a metal crown on his head, connected to a pair of bellows. By nodding his head, the diver causes the bellows to suck air from the surface through a tube. Artwork from 'La Navigation sous-marine' (1906).

    Silver plated etui (ornamental case) containing hypodermic syringe and bottle. This etui, engraved with a floral pattern is English and dates from around 1880.

    Operation on patient's skull, (Detail) The second miniature of a set of six showing the stages of an operation for a compound fracture of the skull. Image taken from Chirurgia. Originally published in France (near Amiens); 1300-1310.

    Cupping set in a wooden case with a red lining. The set comprises of six glass cups, two scarificators, a spirit burner, a syringe and a tincture bottle. This set would have been used in a procedure called 'wet cupping', a form of bloodletting used in the nineteenth century to 'treat' a range of ailments. This set was made in England and dates from the year 1850.