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A depiction of the Crucifixion combined with a tree of life symbol from a thirteenth-century English theological miscellany ; a pelican in her piety, symbol of Christ's sacrifice, is at the top. (Harley 5234 f.5). (British Library)

From the Holkham Bible Picture Book of c.1320-30. God, with fingers raised in admonition, forbids the fruit of the tree in the earthly paradise, an enclosed garden surrounded with battlements. God points to the apple tree, and already in its topmost branches is the pelican piercing her breast to feed her young with her blood. This image of self-sacrifice for others ('the pelican in her piety'), is a traditional type or symbol of Christ. It also alludes to another tradi

Medieval charivari-The community used noisemaking and parades to demonstrate disapproval, most commonly of "unnatural" marriages and remarriages

Drawing of the Tree of Vices, with pride at the bottom and luxury at the top, with snakes and dragons; from the twelfth-century German Speculum virginum; (Arundel 44 f.28v). (British Library)