The crusades during the 11th to 13th centuries. Misleading, as there were frequent "minor" crusades throughout this period, not only in Palestine but also in Spain and central Europe, against not only Muslims, but also Christian heretics and personal enemies of the Papacy or other powerful monarchs. Such "crusades" continued into the 16th century, until the Renaissance and Reformation when the political and religious climate of Europe was significantly different than that of the Middle Ages.
Matthew Paris. The most detailed of four maps drawn to accompany his chronicles abt.1300. The oldest surviving medieval map from England and "the largest, most detailed and most perfectly preserved medieval map in the world