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Controversy: Missionaries saw paganism or sexual immorality in tribal dancing, and also considered it a hindrance to convert Indians to Christianity. The Indian Office felt that traditional dancing impeded assimilation into white culture. Comm. Burke, of Indian Affairs had threatened action if dancing wasn’t curtailed. The Religious Crimes Code of 1883 gave agency superintendents authority to imprison or use force to stop practices they felt were immoral or counter to assimilation policies.

Sitting Bull (1831 – 1890) ~ "a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Born near the Grand River in Dakota Territory, he was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement."

Chippewa Chief Fortunate Eagle (Adam Nordwall), descended from a plane in Italy dressed in full tribal regalia and announced in the name of the American Indian people that he was taking possession of Italy 'by right of discovery'. "I proclaim this day, the day of discovery of Italy," said Nordwall. "What right did Columbus have to discover America when it had already been inhabited for thousands of years? The same right I have to come to Italy and proclaim the discovery of your country."

Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. - before entering school - seven Indian children of uneducated parents - 1899-1900

Oglala Sioux Indian man (Red Hawk). Oglala Sioux meaning "to scatter one's own" in Lakota language, are one of the seven subtribes of the Lakota people, who along with the Nakota and Dakota, make up the Great Sioux Nation.