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Bertha Parker Pallan Cody (1907–1978) is known as the first female Native American archaeologist.
English-born physician Elizabeth Blackwell (1821–1910) was the first female MD in the United States. Rejected by many medical schools due to her gender, she ended up getting a place at the Geneva Medical College in New York, where she had to put up with a lot of unevolved classmates and a professor who thought she should leave the room for lectures on reproductive anatomy in order to protect her “delicate sensibilities”.
Botanist Matilda Moldenhauer Brooks (b. 1891) attended Harvard and conducted research along with her husband, Sumner Cushing Brooks. She discovered an antidote for carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning in the ’30s. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
Roger Arliner Young (1889–1964) was a zoologist and biologist and the first African-American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology. During her long career she studied radiation, paramecium, and hydration and dehydration of living cells. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
Nellie Bly (1864–1922) Nellie Bly was a daring and influential investigative journalist who wrote groundbreaking stories about political corruption and poverty. She once faked madness in order to report undercover from an abusive mental institution in New York City, which led to outcry and reform. Oh, and she once travelled around the world in a record-breaking 72 days, just ‘cause.
Cornelia Clapp (1849–1934) earned both the first and second (from Syracuse and Chicago, respectively) biology doctorate degrees awarded to a woman in the U.S. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
Mary Knight Dunlap (1910–1992), the founder of the Association for Women Veterinarians. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
Florence Bascom (1862–1945) was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University and was also the first woman elected to the Geological Society of America. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World
The Matilda effect is the systematic repression and denial of the contribution of women scientists in research, whose work is often attributed to their male colleagues. This effect was first described in 1993 by science historian Margaret W. Rossiter. It is named after the U.S. women's rights activist Matilda Joslyn Gage, who first observed this phenomenon at the end of the 19th century. (from Wikipedia)