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Margaret Hutchinson Rousseau was a chemical engineer who designed the first commercial penicillin production plant. She was also the first female member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

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34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Bertha Parker Pallan Cody (1907–1978) is known as the first female Native American archaeologist.

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34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Margaret Harwood (1885–1979) was an astronomer. She was the very first director of the female-run Maria Mitchell Observatory in Nantucket, Mass., a nonprofit science education institute. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

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34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Cornelia Clapp (1849–1934) earned both the first and second (from Syracuse and Chicago, respectively) biology doctorate degrees awarded to a woman in the U.S. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Tererai Trent, PhD, is a Zimbabwean-American woman who was not allowed to go to school as a child because she was female. Tererai was forced to marry at age 11. By age 18, she was the mother of three. "When my husband realized that I wanted to have an education, he would beat me." In 2009, happily remarried Trent earned her doctorate; her thesis looked at HIV/AIDS prevention programs for women and girls in sub-Saharan Africa.

Rachel Carson- "Mother of modern environmentalism"-so ahead of her time. She sounded the alarm despite the predictable backlash form agribusiness and chemical companies who called her a "Hysterical female" and a communist.

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34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Botanist Matilda Moldenhauer Brooks (b. 1891) attended Harvard and conducted research along with her husband, Sumner Cushing Brooks. She discovered an antidote for carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning in the ’30s. | 34 American Lady Scientists Who Changed The World

Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 - April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification. With Edward C. Pickering, she is credited with the creation of the Harvard Classification Scheme, which was the first serious attempt to organize and classify stars based on their temperatures.