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Antique Persian char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh), literally the four mirrors. Four plates worn over a zirah (shirt of mail) in Persia, India and Central Asia. The armor plates can be rectangular or round, and the two plates worn on the breast and back are considerably larger than those worn at the sides which had recesses for the arms. During the 16th century, chahar aina cuirasses were introduced in Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Ancient Egyptian arched harp (shoulder harp) frem c. 1390-1295 BCE, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

A small section of the Achaemenid Palaces of Darius in Susa, Persia, constructed by Babylonian craftsmen when Babylon was part of the world's first true empire.

Antique Persian char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh). Literally the four mirrors. Four plates worn over a zirah (shirt of mail) in Persia, India and Central Asia. The armor plates can be rectangular or round, and the two plates worn on the breast and back are considerably larger than those worn at the sides which had recesses for the arms. During the 16th century, chahar aina cuirasses were introduced in Iran. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Armor of the Ottoman Empire. A complete suit of 16th century armor as worn by fully armored cavalryman (sipahi) including Chichak (helmet), krug (chest armor), zirah (mail shirt), kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), dizcek (cuisse or knee and thigh armor), and kolçak (greaves or shin armor). Stibbert Museum, Florence Italy.

Indo-Persian mail and plate shirt, Indian (Mughal or Deccani) mail and plate shirt. Mail shirts reinforced with steel or iron plates appear to have been developed first in Iran or Anatolia in the late 14th or early 15th c. Variations of mail-and-plate armor were worn throughout the Middle East by the Persians, Ottomans, and Mamluks. The style probably was introduced into India early in the Mughal period due to Ottoman influence on Mughal military practices.

Persian mail and plate armor for horse and cavalry soldier, dating from 1450, this type of armor became the standard type of equipment for the heavy cavalry under the Timurids (1370-1506), the Mongol successor empire which ruled from Samarkand, and under the Ottoman Turks. These cavalry, armed with bow, sword and sometimes lance, were the main component of all medieval Islamic armies. the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Ottoman chichak type helmet with 16th century krug (chest armor)with St. Irene arsenal mark, worn over a zirah (mail shirt), kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards).

Indian dastana/bazu band (arm guards) and char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh). Literally the four mirrors. Four plates worn over a zirah (shirt of mail) in Persia, India and Central Asia. The armor plates can be rectangular or round, and the two plates worn on the breast and back are considerably larger than those worn at the sides which had recesses for the arms. During the 16th century, chahar aina cuirasses were introduced in Iran.

Chichak (End of 17th Century CE Ottoman Armor) | Steel, copper, leather, velvet and silk

Ottoman Empire mail and plate kolçak (greaves or shin armor) as worn by fully armored cavalryman (sipahi) in conjunction with migfer (helmet), dizcek (cuisse or knee and thigh armor), zirah (mail shirt), kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), and krug (chest armor). Museums often confuse kolçak (greaves) for kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), even in Turkish museums they are labeled as arm guards and mounted on the arms of display mannequins rather than on the lower leg.

Indian (Deccan) khula-khud (helmet), zirah baktar (mail and plate shirt) 17th Century approx. 95 cm. long, the long-sleeved mail shirt with eight frontal plaques embellished with gilt mounts, the back with five vertical rows of small plaques, Persian / Ottoman bazu band (vambrace/arm guard), pair of red leather boots with one Ottoman mail-and-plate kolçak (greaves or shin armor).

Persian khula-khud (helmet), char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh), literally the four mirrors, chest armor with four plates, bazu band (vambrace/arm guards).

Ottoman Empire mail-and-plate dizcek (cuisse or knee and thigh armor) as worn by fully armored cavalryman (sipahi) in conjunction with migfer (helmet), krug (chest armor), zirah (mail shirt), kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), and kolçak (greaves or shin armor). Les Invalides Museum of Arms and Armor, Paris France.

Ottoman Chichak type helmet with krug (chest armor) worn over a zirah (mail shirt), 16th c, gold-plated iron, embossed with decorative etchings of arabesques and Arabic inscriptions (prayers to Allah and verses from the Qur’an). Parts of the armour are attributed to a Mamluk prince because of its similarity to the helmet of Khairbak, the governor of Aleppo, who rendered Syria in 1517 to Selim I Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Ottoman Empire armor belonging to Sultan Mustafa III consisting of migfer (helmet), zirah (mail shirt), mail trousers, kolluk/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), shamshir (sabre), decorated with gold and encrusted with jewels, 18th century, exhibited in the Imperial Treasury of Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey

Indian armor, khula-khud (helmet), char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh), literally the four mirrors, chest armor with four plates, dastanas/bazu band (vambrace/arm guards), zirah (mail shirt) and zirah pajama (mail trousers).

Persian char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh)‎, composite, watered steel, comprising four rectangular plates, those at the sides with arched recesses for the arms, three etched with calligraphic panels at the borders and a central foliate cartouche, all enriched with gold koftgari, fitted with reinforced brass borders, and buckles for closure and suspension, and the remaining panel engraved 29 cm; 11 1/2 in high Inscribed with verses in Persian and Arabic, 19th century.

Antique Persian char-aina (chahar-aina, chahar a’ineh). Literally the four mirrors. Four plates worn over a zirah (shirt of mail) in Persia, India and Central Asia. The armor plates can be rectangular or round, and the two plates worn on the breast and back are considerably larger than those worn at the sides which had recesses for the arms. During the 16th century, chahar aina cuirasses were introduced in Iran.