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Eastern Islamic Astrolabe, 1481 An astrolabe where the celestial sphere has not been projected into a plane. This is the only complete spherical astrolabe known to have survived. It can be used for the usual range of astronomical calculation, but is less convenient to make and to use.

polyhedral sundial made by stefano bonsignor. Wood, c.1588. Istituto e Museo di Storia delle Scienze, Florence, Italy. Photo by Leemage. (via

Polyhedral sundial with 26 faces, dating from the 16th century. On display at the Museum of the History of Sciences in Florence, Italy. Artist: Tomsich. [Click for Hi-Rez] (via )

Astronomical Instrument with Qibla Indicator and Pin-Gnomon Sundial, Persian?, 1866-7. (Qibla indicator shows the direction of Mecca, towards which a Muslim should face when saying prayers.) Museum of the History of Science, Oxford.

Stefano Buonsignori (?-1589) Sundials, 16th century Florence, Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, inv. 2458 and 2459 Sundials with hexagonal and square faces. A different type of sundial (horizontal, vertical or inclined), complete with gnomon, is marked out on each face. The compass served to orient the instrument towards the local magnetic meridian.