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Karl and Ilse Koch. Karl was Commandant of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, then moved to Buchenwald. and finally to Majdanek. He was executed by the Nazis for theft during the war. His wife, Isle, "Bitch of Buchenwald", is infamous for her collection of items made from the tanned skin of inmates. She rode through the camps selecting prisoners whose tattoos she fancied, had them killed, and used the skin for lampshades, purses, and other items. She committed suicide in prison in 1967.

1942. Medical experiment performed at the Dachau concentration camp to determine altitudes at which German pilots could survive. In Dachau, as in other Nazi camps, German physicians performed medical experiments on prisoners, including high-altitude experiments using a decompression chamber, malaria and tuberculosis experiments, hypothermia experiments, and experiments testing new medications. Hundreds of prisoners died or were permanently disabled as a result of these experiments.

Nazi Capturted in US. Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan-Former guard at the Majdanek & Ravensbruck concentration camps. Then moved to the US in 1959 & became a citizen, after marrying an American. She settled in Queens until 1964 when a tip by Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal to the NY Times led to her exposure. In 1973, she became the first Nazi war criminal extradited from the US to WGermany. She went through multiple criminal trials and was eventually sentenced to life in prison in 1981.

Miep Gies Jan 11, 2010 weeks shy of her 101st birthday. Gies worked for Otto Frank’s Amsterdam pectin co. & was the main caretaker of the Franks, including Anne, and the four other Jews who hid for 25 months in the business’ back rooms. Those hiding in the Secret Annex managed, with the help of Gies, her husband & four co-workers, to evade capture by the Nazis until Aug. 1944. Dispersed to various concentration camps, only Anne’s father returned alive.

Mother Marie Skobtzova. Russian Orthodox Nun in France who helped Jews during the Holocaust. In July 1942 the Nazis rounded up thousands of Jews for deportation. Mother Maria managed to enter the stadium where they were being held, and with the help of garbage collectors, smuggled out several children in garbage bins. The Nazis soon warned her to stop helping Jews, but she did not listen. Mother Maria was arrested in February 1943 and sent to concentration camps, where she perished.

Ilse Koch was the wife of Karl-Otto Koch, commandant of the Nazi concentration camps Buchenwald (from 1937 to 1941) and Majdanek (from 1941 to 1943). She was accused of taking souvenirs from the skin of murdered inmates with distinctive tattoos. She was known as "The Witch of Buchenwald" by the inmates because of her cruelty and lasciviousness toward prisoners. She is also called in English "The Beast of Buchenwald", "The Bitch of Buchenwald"and the "Butcher Widow".

Orli Wald was a member of the German Resistance in Nazi Germany. She was arrested in 1936 and charged with high treason, whereupon she served four and a half years in a women's prison, followed by "protective custody" in Nazi concentration camps until 1945, when she escaped. She was a prisoner functionary in the infirmary at Auschwitz-Birkenau and because of her helpfulness to Jewish and other prisoners, was called the "Angel of Auschwitz".