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A detail from "The Extraction of the Stone of Madness", a painting by Hieronymus Bosch depicting trepanation (c.1488-1516). Note the bollock pouch on the chair and the purse on the lady.

from Etsy

Antique Medical Steel Skull Galt Trephine Trepanning c1900s

Antique Medical Skull Trephine c.1900s (with steel bluing) For Sale

Workman shown fastening of the hose to the short doublet by means of points or ties, Bosch 1475–80. Hieronymus Bosch 093 detail 1.jpg

Bronze Age skull from Jericho, Israel/Palestine, 2200-2000 BCE Although this skull shows four separate holes made by the ancient surgical process of trephination, they had clearly begun to heal. This suggests that although highly dangerous, the procedure was by no means fatal. Also known as trepanation, or trepanning, the process of making a hole through the skull to the surface of the brain might be carried out to treat a range of medical conditions or for more mystical reasons. The…