12th century

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12th century

12th century

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Ruins of Castle Frauenstein, Germany ~ It is not known who built Frauenstein Castle, but, based on dendrochronological evidence, its construction has been dated to around 1184 CE. *Photographer Kilian Schönberger - Amazingly, Schönberger is color blind, rendering him incapable of distinguishing green from red, magenta from grey, or violet from blue. Rather than a detriment to his work, over the years he’s learned to transform it into a source of strength by focusing on composition.

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Herrad of Landsberg was a 12th-century abbess of Hohenburg Abbey in the Vosges mountains. She is known as the author of the pictorial encyclopedia Hortus deliciarum (The Garden of Delights). This illustration of Hell is from a less delightful passage. Born about 1130 at the castle of Landsberg, Herrad entered the Hohenburg Abbey at an early age.

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in Timbuktu, Mali, over a million manuscripts have been re-discovered alongside about 20 million more in West Africa overall. These manuscripts date back to 12th-16th centuries. "The fact that the trade of books in Mali was considered the most profitable business at that time shows how much West Africans loved literacy & education,” said Emad Al-Turk, Chairman and co-founder of IMMC. These manuscripts are incredibly rich in style and content.

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late 12th century- Masculine & feminine clothing in Europe are virtually the same: a long, belted tunic with a cloak. 150 years later, little will have changed except differences in necklines and sleeves. A common style of clothing will first begin to disappear in the late 14th century in northern Italy & France.

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12th century- In Europe, there is little divide between private & public space. Even aristocrats sleep in an enclosed bed in the same great hall where they meet with vassals & eat meals. This has been the norm since the fall of Rome & will continue to be the norm for another 3 centuries.

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KUMANO HAYATAMA TAISHA, Japan: is one of the original Kumano shrines which in the Shinto religion are believed to house the spirits of the sacred mountains Hongū, Shingū, & Nachi. The three original Kumano shrines are connected by the pilgrimage route known as "Kumano Sankeimichi". While its buildings were rebuilt recently, Hayatama Taisha has occupied the same spot on the Kumano Riverbank since at least the 12th century.

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POLONNARUWA,Sri Lanka: was the capital of the second most ancient of Sri Lanka's kingdoms. It was declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who drove off the southern Indian Chola invaders to reunite the country once more under a local leader. The reign of Parakramabahu I (through 1186) is considered the Golden Age of Polonnaruwa. Trade & agriculture flourished. The king was adamant that no drop of rain was to be wasted.

Polonnaruwa, the ancient kingdom of reservoirs (846 AD - 1302 AD) Sri Lanka, A world Heritage Site


MINARET OF JAM, Afghanistan: was built around 1190 of baked bricks. It is located in a remote & nearly inaccessible region next to the Hari River. The minaret is famous for its intricate stucco & glazed tile decoration, which consists of alternating bands of calligraphy, geometric patterns, & verses from the Qur'an. As of 2013 the minaret remained on the list of World Heritage in Danger, under serious threat of erosion.

Jam travel guide - Wikitravel


QUTB COMPLEX, India: was originally the site of 27 ancient Hindu & Jain temples which were destroyed during the Muslim invasion of India. The temples' material was used in the construction of the Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque. The best-known structure in the complex is the Qutb Minaret, built for the first Sultan of the Muslim Mamluk dynasty, who murdered the native Hindu king in 1192. The complex was added to by many subsequent rulers, including Ala ud din Khilji & British governors.

The Qutb Complex


GUIMARAES, Portugal: is associated with the emergence of the Portuguese national identity in the 12th century. An exceptionally well-preserved & authentic example of the evolution of a medieval settlement into a modern town, its rich buildings exemplify Portuguese architecture over 400 years through the consistent use of traditional building materials & techniques.

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Crak de Montreal (Jordan) - built in 1115 by Baldwin I of Jerusalem. The knights of the castle controlled the commerce of the area, as pilgrims and merchants needed permission to travel past. Saladin, who invaded the kingdom in 1187, laid siege to Montreal for two years, but was unable to use siege engines because of the hill. It is said that, during the siege, the defending crusader knights sold their wives and children for food. The castle finally fell to Saladin in May 1189.

Ash Shawbak castle (Montreal), Jordan


PREAH VIHEAR TEMPLE, Cambodia: is a Hindu temple built during the period of the Khmer Empire. It is situated atop a 1,722-ft cliff in the Dângrêk Mountains. Preah Vihear has the most spectacular setting of all the temples built during the 600-year-long Khmer Empire. Most of the temple was constructed during the reigns of Suryavarman I & Suryavarman II, ending in 1150.

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URNES STAVE CHURCH, Norway: was built about 1132. It provides a link between the architecture of the Viking Age, with typical animal ornamentation, & Christianity, which was introduced into Norway during the reign of St Olav just prior to the building of this church. The church sits in a glacial valley directly across a fjord from the village of Solvorn & about 3.1 mi from the village of Hafslo.

File:Urnes stave church 1.jpg - Wikimedia Commons


ABBEY CHURCH OF SAINT-SAVIN-SUR-GARTEMPE, France: is a church built in the Romanesque style, which focused on rounded arches carried over from Roman Imperial architecture. The church contains many murals painted through the 12th century which are still in a remarkable state of preservation. Below the church is the frescoed crypt of the legendary martyr brothers St Savin and St Cyprian.

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Bowl from Ghaznavid Afghanistan, 12th-13th centuries, high tin bronze, cast, hammered, chased, punched, & engraved

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Afghan bowl from the 12th-13th centuries, the Seljuq period during which what is today Afghanistan was ruled by the Seljuq Turks. The bowl is earthenware incised and painted with polychrome glazes (Museum Code: F1944.49 | Photograph and description taken from Freer and the Sackler Museums.)

Earthenware, Ceramics and Tiles at the Smithsonian Museum


Twelfth-century headdresses.

KotF French Clothing and Armor (Image Heavy)


CHATEAU DE MONTRICHARD, France: was captured by local warlord Hughes I d'Amboise in 1109. He enlarged the castle to the size we see today. The castle was dismantled for Henri IV in order to limit the power of regional warlords, leaving the ruin of today, from which visitors have a good view of the Cher Valley.

Château de Montrichard — Wikipédia


CHATEAU DE SAUMUR, France: was originally constructed as a fortified stronghold against Norman predations at the confluence of the Loire & the Thouet Rivers. It was rebuilt by Henry II of England in the later 12th century. In 1621 the castle was converted into an army barracks. Nearly two centuries later it was converted into a state prison under Napoleon Bonaparte.

Château de Saumur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


PROVINS, France: is known for its well-preserved city walls. Provins was home to one of the fairs that were crucial to the medieval European economy when the city was under the dominance of the Counts of Champagne. In the 12th century, a saint's head was brought from Jerusalem by Henry I of Champagne, who built a church to display it. Two sets of caves underlie parts of the town. The first set was likely used to store food in the Middle Ages.

古镇---普罗旺Provins-大巴黎- 法国 - 黄页点评 - 新欧洲 - 华人生活指南


SPEYER CATHEDRAL, Germany: is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Speyer. It was completed in 1106, & was extremely influential in the subsequent development of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries. Conrad II commissioned the cathedral to be the Catholic world's largest church as well as his own tomb. It was one of the most ambitious projects of its time & when completed was one of the largest buildings in the world.

The Lost Fort: The Cathedral in Speyer - Architecture


VEZELAY ABBEY, France: today consists only of a church. The original abbey, based on the Benedictine rule of peaceful prayer & work, was founded, as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa. The name Vézelay comes from the name of the villa, Vercellus. The current nave, which had burnt once, with great loss of life, burned again in 1165, after which it was rebuilt in its present form.

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c. 1100-1750- Largely Hindu India comes under the control of invading Muslims. Under Muslim dominance, Hindus increasingly turn to the Bhakti movement, the belief that salvation is attainable by everyone without regard to class distinctions or traditional rituals. The movement is closely related to Islamic Sufism, which appears around the same time: both advocate that a personal expression of devotion to God is the way to become one with him.

Bhakti & Sufi Movements in the Undivided India


WARTBURG, Germany: is a castle whose building spanned centuries. The largest structure of the Wartburg is the Palas, originally built in late Romanesque style between 1157 and 1170. The Wartburg was the supposed setting for the legendary Sängerkrieg- the singing contest which inspired Wagner's much later Tannhäuser opera- as well as the home of St. Elisabeth of Hungary & the place where Martin Luther translated the New Testament of the Bible into German.

Wartburg | Daily Grace


Couple in 1100's Latvian/Baltic clothing

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