Yoginis in a Landscape India, Mughal period, late 17th c. five yoginis, or female ascetics, wearing fine gold-edged muslin and adorned with gold ornaments, hold aloft tiny golden cups of wine while the yogini in the center also holds a stringed musical instrument. Although the artist has depicted the humble possessions of ascetics in precious materials, the yoginis' wine cups, stringed instrument, and lightly draped shawls refer to yogic practice.
Raja Birbal was a Mughal courtier and general sent to subdue the Yusufzai Pashtuns in the Swat Valley in 1586. Without assessing the dangers of marching through the narrow passes of the mountain territory, he lead his 8000 man army to destruction. He was killed when his army was ambushed in Malandarai and Swat passes. This became one of the largest Mughal defeats during the rule of Emperor Akbar the Great.