Never Forget: The Devil’s Punchbowl – 20,000 Freed Slaves Died After Being Forced Into Post Slavery Concentration Camp
"Hark! A Vagrant" celebrates hero Ida B Wells in several strips. Scroll all the way down the page for a great little mash note to Miss Wells from the artist.
A Fourth of July celebration. St. Helena Island, South Carolina, 1939. Reproduction from color slide. Photo by Marion Post Wolcott.
Emancipated slave children from New Orleans draped in the American flag, Charles Paxson, photographer, New York, 1870 | Early Pictures
Tintype of James Weldon Johnson’s mother and sister: Helen Louise Johnson and Agnes Marion Edwards, 1870.
PARO BRUNER, a former Slave of a Creek Indian named Wash Barnett, was the first Creek Freedmen to enroll with the Dawes Commission, after the Creek Nation was forced to Emancipate their African Slaves in 1866. Paro Bruner served as an elected Creek Council member in the House of Warriors for many years and represented the Canadian Colored Tribal Town. He was at-least 75 years old at the time of this photo, c. 1900.
Reconstruction, 1865–77, At the end of the Civil War, the defeated South was a ruined land. The physical destruction wrought by the invading Union forces was enormous, and the old social and economic order founded on slavery had collapsed completely, with nothing to replace it. The 11 Confederate states somehow had to be restored to their positions in the Union and provided with loyal governments, and the role of the emancipated slaves in Southern society had to be defined.
At the southern end of the Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, D.C. lies an area that was once a village for fugitive and liberated slaves. The area was known as Freedman’s Village. Tucked away in Section 27 of the honored cemetery lie over 3,500 grave markers that simply say “citizen or civilian.” Freedman’s Village was comprised of 50 split-level homes to house two families at a time. Designed to educate and train the former slaves,
John Roy Lynch (September 10, 1847 - November 2, 1939) was the son of an enslaved mother and an Irish immigrant who died before he was able to free his family. Lynch was speaker of the Mississippi House of Representatives before serving 2 terms in the US House. Teddy Roosevelt nominated him Temporary Chair of the RNC in 1884. His book The Facts of Reconstruction is available online free here http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16158/16158-h/16158-h.htm #TodayInBlackHistory
Shady Rest Westfield Country Club (1900) in Scotch Plains, NJ featured a 9 &18 Hole Course Country Club 4 the African American Community. Shady Rest was an important social & economic institution in the local community & NYC. Ella Fitzgerald, Count Basie & Duke Ellington performed, Althea Gibson learned tennis & golf. Memorial Day 1923 activist-scholar & lecturer W.E.B. DuBois spoke at Shady Rest. Shady Rest represented a symbol of black achievement for Working Class & Professional Members
This photograph shows 88-year-old Mrs. Sally Fickland, a former slave, looking at the Emancipation Proclamation in 1947. She would have been 3 years old when Lincoln signed the proclamation in 1862. The document was in Philadelphia that day on the first stop on the Freedom Train tour. The Freedom Train carried the Emancipation Proclamation and the Bill of Rights across America. During the 413-day tour, 3.5 million people in 322 cities in 48 states viewed these records
Photo: Chickasaw Freedmen filing for allotment in Oklahoma. | Emancipation and the end of the Civil War did not bring immediate relief to the Enslaved living in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. The United States considered them to be separate political polities; therefore, the Abolition of Slavery as stated in the Thirteenth Amendment did not apply in Indian Territory. The Choctaw/Chickasaw treaty of 1866 outlined the details of Emancipation, Citizenship, and land claims for the Freedmen...
1863 | Contraband School, Freedmen's Village, Arlington, Virginia. | A contraband camp that was transformed into the first home that thousands of former Slaves would live in as 'Free People' until it was shut down by the Government, in1900. Dignitaries from around the Nation came. The most famous was Sojourner Truth, the fiery Abolitionist and Preacher, spent about a year at Freedman's Village as a counselor and teacher. (Mathew Brady Collection. Image date: 1863.)
Once "freed", many of the former slaves and their children had no where to go. These are the houses built mostly during the "Slave Years" --- before the Civil War, and Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" .
Southern blacks frustrated with discrimination and poverty in the South and emigrated to the West. This is sometimes called the Exodus of 1879. - Anayeli
Affidavit for United States Ex-Slave Owners Registration Bureau. From Duke Digital Collections. Collection: Broadsides & Ephemera. Single-sided form prepared by the United States Ex-Slave Owners Registration Bureau for use as an affidavit, where former slave owners could attest to the number of slaves owned before the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, in pursuit of possible future compensation for monetary or property losses.
This late 19th-century photo shows the Freedmens Bureau office established to aid the large concentration of former slaves who had flocked to Fort Monroe and Hampton.
Equal Justice Initiative's HISTORY OF RACIAL INJUSTICE HIGHLIGHT: CONVICT LEASING Pictured here: Black orphaned children and juvenile offenders could be bought to serve as laborers for white planters in many Southern states from 1865 until the 1940s. (Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection, LC-D428-850)
'One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928 - Matthew J. Mancini - Google Books. Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States, beginning with the emancipation of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865, peaking around 1880, and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928. It persisted in various forms until World War II.'
Dr. George Washington Carver was castrated-had his testicles cut off, at the age of 7 so he wouldn't mix with the plantation owner's female family members while he worked in their home. His voice had a high pitch due to the castration being performed before puberty. Others say due to him being a genius they were afraid of his seeds being spread period and that it would enhance the intellectual ability of the African community making them superior to white supremacy.
This picture is from: Photos of 19th-Century African American Women Working." Notice by the uniform the man is wearing, he is a Civil War vet. So this picture was most likely taken in the late 1860s or early 1870s. Biddy Craft
This 1868 photo is entitled "Magby Peterson and his Nanny." The little girl may have been considered fortunate to be chosen to work as a nany rather than a field worker. However, house servants were usually isolated from their families and community. She may have never lived with her parents again after being given this job. Florida State Archives.
Francis L. Cardozo was sworn in as the Secretary of State in South Carolina (July 9, 1868). He was the first African American to hold a statewide office in the United States. During his tenure he reformed the South Carolina Land Commission, which distributed land to former slaves. He was elected state treasurer in 1872 (and was re-elected in 1874 & 1876 (After it was proven he DID NOT cooperate with corruption, some legislators unsuccessfully tried to impeach Cardozo in 1874).
The Black Codes: Examining Southern Reconstruction through Primary Sources! **A Common Core Ready Activity!**
Segregation was demeaning, dishonorable and degrading. Segregated America: After the Civil War, millions of formerly enslaved African Americans hoped to join the larger society as full & equal citizens. Although some white Americans welcomed them others used people’s ignorance, racism & self-interest to sustain and spread racial divisions. By 1900 new laws and old customs in the North and the South had created a segregated society that condemned Americans of color to second-class citizenship...