Ethnography: Is a form of qualitative research employed by anthropologists to study human society and culture. An ethnography then, presents a sociocultural analysis of the unit of study. Concern with the cultural context is what sets this type of study upon from other types of qualitative research.
Characteristics of Qualitative Research: Qualitative research is an umbrella concept covering several forms of inquiry that help us understand and explain the meaning of social phenomena with as little disruption of the natural setting as possible.
Case study: Intensive descriptions and analyses of a single unit or bounded system (Smith, 1978) such as an individual, program, event, group, intervention, or community.
Data are collected through interviews, observations, or document analysis. Findings are a mix of description and analysis-an analysis that uses concepts from the theoretical framework of the study
The experiences of different people are bracketed, analyzed, and compared to identify the essences of the phenomenon. The assumption of essence , like the ethnographer is the assumption that culture exists and is important, becomes the defining characteristic for a purely phenomenological study.
Grounded theory: The investigator as the primary instrument of data collection and analysis assumes an inductive stance and strives to derive meaning from the data. The end result of this type of qualitative research is a theory that emerges from, or is "grounded" in, the data-hence, grounded theory'.
Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed, that is, how they make sense of their world and the experiences they have in the world.