In 2013, an anonymous hacker mapped the Internet through illegal means, and in the process exposed rampant security problems. The project, called Internet Census 2012, used 420,000 networked devices, dubbed the Carna Botnet, to ping IP addresses across the globe in 2012. Every one of the devices was either entirely unsecured with no password protection, or used the standard password "root" that comes with many off-the-shelf routers (users are supposed to change the password, but rarely do).
This Map of the US Internet Was Never Public Until Now
US fibre cable map. "This work is about how the US long-haul fiber infrastructure looks like, how resilient it is, how it impacts risks, and how we can improve it. Ram mentioned that no one has a complete view of the Internet at a physical level"
What the Internet really looks like: Each yellow line is one of the major fiber-optic cables that carry Internet traffic around the world. These are the 'plumbing' of the internet, and many are routed undersea