The young black janitor who changed the world ... Vivien Thomas (1910-1985). In 1944, Hopkins' surgery chief, Dr. Alfred Blalock, successfully operated on the heart of a 9-pound child, a "blue baby." As Blalock prepared to make his historic incision, he looked around the operating room and asked, "Where's Vivien?" Blalock would not begin surgery until his janitor-turned-surgical assistant, Vivien Thomas, was there to guide the procedure. Prejudice long kept Thomas' crucial role…

The young black janitor who changed the world ... Vivien Thomas (1910-1985). In 1944, Hopkins' surgery chief, Dr. Alfred Blalock, successfully operated on the heart of a 9-pound child, a "blue baby." As Blalock prepared to make his historic incision, he looked around the operating room and asked, "Where's Vivien?" Blalock would not begin surgery until his janitor-turned-surgical assistant, Vivien Thomas, was there to guide the procedure. Prejudice long kept Thomas' crucial role…

The last faces of American slavery: Stunning pictures of men and women who were born into slavery and photographed more than 70 years after being freed.

Stunning pictures of men and women who were born into slavery and photographed more than seventy years after being freed

The last faces of American slavery: Stunning pictures of men and women who were born into slavery and photographed more than 70 years after being freed.

Slavery in the United States - Children who were born to slaves began working as soon as they were able.

Slavery in the United States - Children who were born to slaves began working as soon as they were able.

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