Drugs & Alcohol

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A drug refers to any chemical substance that affects physiological functions, moods, perceptions, and consciousness. By extension drugs stand to alter or interrupt interpersonal interactions, and the widespread use of drugs, may even alter the form of entire social networks. This album examines the use and abuse of drugs in human societies. Among other drugs, the album specifically explores the history and prevalence of opiods, marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco.

The Sociological Cinema
Drugs: Alcohol
Drugs: Marijuana
Drugs: Tobacco
Drugs: Opioids
Drugs: Cocaine
Drugs: E-Cigarettes
Drugs: Criminalization
Other Pins

Drugs: Alcohol

Change in proportion of 15-year olds who have drunk alcohol, 2002-2010  Source: OECD analysis of HBSC data in Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use (2015)

To drink or not to drink? 2002-2010

Change in proportion of 15-year olds who have drunk alcohol, 2002-2010 Source: OECD analysis of HBSC data in Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use (2015)

Source: OECD

One More? Alcohol consumption among adults, 1982 and 2012, litres per year

Source: OECD

Source: VinePair

The States That Drink the Most Alcohol in America, 2018

We analyzed data from annual surveys and reports to see who is drinking the most, and where. Does your state rank among the top or bottom imbibers? Learn more in our infographic.

"Drunkards Cured Secretly: Any Lady Can Do It at Home--Costs Nothing to Try."  Source: Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXII, Number 68, 8 December 1904

Drunkards Cured Secretly: Any Lady Can Do It at Home--Costs Nothing to Try

"Drunkards Cured Secretly: Any Lady Can Do It at Home--Costs Nothing to Try." Source: Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXII, Number 68, 8 December 1904

An “Everything Must Go!” Prohibition Sale, June 24th, 1920.  Photo credit: Maryland Historical Society — at Maryland.

An “Everything Must Go!” Prohibition Sale, June 24th, 1920. Photo credit: Maryland Historical Society — at Maryland.

Total alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol), 2016  Source: World Bank

Total alcohol consumption per capita

Total alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol), 2016 Source: World Bank

Percentage of all-cause mortality attributable to alcohol  Source: OECD / World Health Organization (WHO)

Percentage of all-cause mortality attributable to alcohol Source: OECD / World Health Organization (WHO)

Americans have been drinking less beer, but the decline is offset by an increase in the consumption of wine and spirits.  Source: Brennan Center for Justice / National Institutes of Health

Per Capita Consumption of Alcohol as a Percent of 1977 Consumption Levels

Americans have been drinking less beer, but the decline is offset by an increase in the consumption of wine and spirits. Source: Brennan Center for Justice / National Institutes of Health

Source: Monitoring the Future

Five or More Drinks in a Row in Last Two Weeks

Source: Monitoring the Future

Source: Monitoring the Future

Alcohol - Trends in 2-Week Prevalence of Heavy Drinking in Grade 12 by Gender

Source: Monitoring the Future

Drugs: Marijuana

Majorities across generations--except Silents--favor legalizing marijuana  Source: Pew Research Center

Majorities across generations--except Silents--favor legalizing marijuana

Majorities across generations--except Silents--favor legalizing marijuana Source: Pew Research Center

Source: Pew Research Center

Only about one-in-ten Americans oppose marijuana legalization for medical or recreational uses

Source: Pew Research Center

Source: Pew Research Center

Wide partisan gap in opinions about legalizing marijuana use

Source: Pew Research Center

Source: Pew Research Center

U.S. public opinion on legalizing marijuana, 1969-2019

Source: Pew Research Center

Source: Pew Research Center

Republicans in Silent Generation least likely to favor legalizing marijuana use

Source: Pew Research Center

The share of high school students using marijuana has remained relatively stable and may have even declined in states that have passed a medical marijuana law.  Source: Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use / Washington Post

No Change in Teen Use after Passage of Medical Marijuana Laws

The share of high school students using marijuana has remained relatively stable and may have even declined in states that have passed a medical marijuana law. Source: Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use / Washington Post

People (over 17 years of age) without any college are the largest share of marijuana users.  Source: Jonathan Caulkins / Vox

People with College Educations Don't Use the Most Marijuana

People (over 17 years of age) without any college are the largest share of marijuana users. Source: Jonathan Caulkins / Vox

California leads the country in per capita patients using medical marijuana.  Source: MMJ program websites / 2015 Marijuana Business Factbook / U.S. Census Bureau July 2014 estimates / 2016 Marijuana Business Daily

Medical Marijuana Patients Per Capita

California leads the country in per capita patients using medical marijuana. Source: MMJ program websites / 2015 Marijuana Business Factbook / U.S. Census Bureau July 2014 estimates / 2016 Marijuana Business Daily

U.S. Cannabis Industry Total Economic Impact: 2018-2021  Marijuana is quickly becoming a very big, legalized business.  Source: Marijuana Business Daily, 2017

U.S. Cannabis Industry Total Economic Impact: 2018-2021

U.S. Cannabis Industry Total Economic Impact: 2018-2021 Marijuana is quickly becoming a very big, legalized business. Source: Marijuana Business Daily, 2017

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

Marijuana Arrest Rates per 100,000 in Washington, D.C. by Charge and Race (2010-2016)

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

There is a racial disparity in marijuana-related arrests among adolescents aged 10–17 in Colorado. White juvenile marijuana arrests decreased by 8% between 2012 and 2014, while black juvenile arrests increased by 58% and Latino juvenile arrests increased 29%.  Source: Colorado Department of Public Safety

Juvenile Pot Arrest Rates Before & After Legalization

Source document contributed to DocumentCloud by Tom Namako (BuzzFeed).

Marijuana arrests hold steady in 2016 - Estimated arrests for simple marijuana possession, 1989-2016  Source: FBI Uniform Crime Statistics / Wonkblog

Marijuana arrests hold steady in 2016 - Estimated arrests for simple marijuana possession, 1989-2016 Source: FBI Uniform Crime Statistics / Wonkblog

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

Annual Marijuana Arrests or Convictions by State

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

Marijuana Arrest in Alaska per 100,000 by Race (2012-2018)

Source: Drug Policy Alliance

Source: Monitoring the Future

Marijuana Use by Race

Source: Monitoring the Future

Harry Anslinger, Director of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics from 1930-1962.  "...the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is its effect on the degenerate races.  Marijuana leads to pacificm and communist brainwashing.  There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing, result from marijuana usage."

Harry Anslinger, Director of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics from 1930-1962. "...the primary reason to outlaw marijuana is its effect on the degenerate races. Marijuana leads to pacificm and communist brainwashing. There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing, result from marijuana usage."

Opinion on legalizing marijuana, 1969-2016  Do you think the use of marijuana should be made legal, or not?  Source: Pew Research Center

Opinion on legalizing marijuana, 1969-2016 Do you think the use of marijuana should be made legal, or not? Source: Pew Research Center

Use of Cannabis in 2012 (or Latest Year Available)

Use of Cannabis in 2012 (or Latest Year Available)

The Sociological Cinema

Percentage of All Drug Arrests That Were for Marijuana Possession (1995-2010) Follow this link to find a short clip and analysis of the fight over legalizing marijuana.

Which is the real cash crop?    In 2010, there were 853,839 marijuana arrests in the U.S.     Same year, two private prison companies made nearly $3 billion locking people up.    [click on this image to find a short video, which takes a satirical look at the criminal justice system]

Just Jane

Sermons, Stories, and Musings by Rev. Jane Page, Unitarian Universalist Minister

Percent Perceiving Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Regularly  Source: University of Michigan / Monitoring the Future Study, 2014

Percent Perceiving Great Risk of Smoking Marijuana Regularly Source: University of Michigan / Monitoring the Future Study, 2014

Crack Babies: The Social History of a Moral Panic

Tags: aging/life course , children/youth , crime/law/deviance , discourse/language , health/medicine , inequality , media , prejudice/discrimination , race/ethnicity , crack, cocaine, drugs, moral...

Percent saying marijuana should be made legal  Source: Gallup / General Social Survey / Pew Research Center

Percent saying marijuana should be made legal Source: Gallup / General Social Survey / Pew Research Center

Courts Send Pot Users to Treatment  % of people in admitted to drug treatment facilities who were ordered there by the courts of the criminal justice system, by drug, 2013  Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Courts Send Pot Users to Treatment % of people in admitted to drug treatment facilities who were ordered there by the courts of the criminal justice system, by drug, 2013 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Crack Babies: The Social History of a Moral Panic

Tags: aging/life course , children/youth , crime/law/deviance , discourse/language , health/medicine , inequality , media , prejudice/discrimination , race/ethnicity , crack, cocaine, drugs, moral...

Views of Legalizing Marijuana: 1969-2013  [click on this image to find a short clip and analysis of the fight over legalizing marijuana]

The Fight Over Medical Marijuana

Tags: crime/law/deviance , government/the state , drugs, medical marijuana, mandatory minimum sentencing, states rights, 06 to 10 mins Year: 2012 Length: 6:54 Access: New York Times Summary: This...

Drugs: Tobacco

In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then they were immediately asked to indicate their favorite brand or report the brand of cigarette they carried in their pocket.  Source: R. J. Reynolds

"More Doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette," c. 1946.

In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then they were immediately asked to indicate their favorite brand or report the brand of cigarette they carried in their pocket. Source: R. J. Reynolds

The tobacco industry made every effort to associate itself with noble institutions, patriotic themes, & cultural icons connoting respectability. Among the innumerable examples are: George Washington, Mt Rushmore, the US flag, and the Statue of Liberty, the Capitol, referees, astronauts, and even the beloved family pet.. Even more prevalent were cultural symbols which brought to mind happy times and celebration, such as Santa Claus.

"Guard Against Throat Scratch," 1951.

The tobacco industry made every effort to associate itself with noble institutions, patriotic themes, & cultural icons connoting respectability. Among the innumerable examples are: George Washington, Mt Rushmore, the US flag, and the Statue of Liberty, the Capitol, referees, astronauts, and even the beloved family pet.. Even more prevalent were cultural symbols which brought to mind happy times and celebration, such as Santa Claus.

"Viceroys Filter Smoke! 'As your dentist, I would recommend Viceroys,'" 1936

"Viceroys Filter Smoke! 'As your dentist, I would recommend Viceroys,'" 1936

This genre of ads regularly appeared in medical journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association, an organization which for decades collaborated closely with the industry.   In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then asked to indicate the brand in their pocket.

"More Doctors Smoke Camels Than Any Other Cigarette," 1946

This genre of ads regularly appeared in medical journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association, an organization which for decades collaborated closely with the industry. In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then asked to indicate the brand in their pocket.

Source: Gallop

Have you yourself smoked any cigarettes in the past week?

Source: Gallop

Last Two Decades of Cigarette Use  Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Last Two Decades of Cigarette Use Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Past Month Use of Cigarettes and Marijuana among 12th graders, 1975-2014  Source: University of Michigan / Monitoring the Future Study, 2014

Past Month Use of Cigarettes and Marijuana among 12th graders, 1975-2014 Source: University of Michigan / Monitoring the Future Study, 2014

Drugs: Opioids

Opium - For relief of headache, pain, cramping, excitability, and women's discomfort

Opium - For relief of headache, pain, cramping, excitability, and women's discomfort

*Classes are based on absolute fatal overdose rates in 2014–2016 and the change in rates between 2002–2004 and 2014–2016. Analyses included 3,079 U.S. counties.  Source: Shannon Monnat / Institute for New Economic Thinking

Place-Based Economic Conditions and the Geography of the Opioid Overdose Crisis

*Classes are based on absolute fatal overdose rates in 2014–2016 and the change in rates between 2002–2004 and 2014–2016. Analyses included 3,079 U.S. counties. Source: Shannon Monnat / Institute for New Economic Thinking

"Did you know the overdose rate is significantly *lower* among 15–24 year-olds than those 45-54? It's International Opiate Awareness Day, a time to remember loved ones, reduce stigma, and redouble efforts to understand and prevent overdose. #EndOverdose" ~ Chris Uggen  Source: NCHS / National Vital Statistics System

"Did you know the overdose rate is significantly *lower* among 15–24 year-olds than those 45-54? It's International Opiate Awareness Day, a time to remember loved ones, reduce stigma, and redouble efforts to understand and prevent overdose. #EndOverdose" ~ Chris Uggen Source: NCHS / National Vital Statistics System

Western men and women of upper and middle class means frequentes opium dens like this one, 1923. — in New York, New York.

Western men and women of upper and middle class means frequentes opium dens like this one, 1923. — in New York, New York.

Preemptive tweet: if you are thinking about covering the Trump admin's opioid policies without mentioning its plans to slash Medicaid........please don't do that  ~ @jleibenluft

Preemptive tweet: if you are thinking about covering the Trump admin's opioid policies without mentioning its plans to slash Medicaid........please don't do that ~ @jleibenluft

Drugs: Cocaine

New Cocaine Users in U.S.  The number of people trying cocaine in the U.S. has increased.  Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

New Cocaine Users in U.S. The number of people trying cocaine in the U.S. has increased. Source: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

National Overdose Deaths - Number of Deaths from Cocaine  Source: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC

National Overdose Deaths - Number of Deaths from Cocaine Source: National Center for Health Statistics, CDC

Cocaine Toothache Drops

Drugs: E-Cigarettes

Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Among all tobacco products, middle and high school students use e-cigarettes the most.  Past Month Use of Selected Tobacco Products  Source: University of Michigan, 2014 Monitoring the Future Study

Among all tobacco products, middle and high school students use e-cigarettes the most. Past Month Use of Selected Tobacco Products Source: University of Michigan, 2014 Monitoring the Future Study

Only 14.2% of 12th Graders View E-Cigarette Use as Harmful, Which Is Less Than 5 Students in the Average Class  Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Only 14.2% of 12th Graders View E-Cigarette Use as Harmful, Which Is Less Than 5 Students in the Average Class Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

One of the reasons Juul became so popular was that its founders discovered a way to give people a massive dose of nicotine during initial puffs.  As founder Adam Bowen explained, "[We found that] when you combine nicotine with certain organic acids in specific ways [to produce nicotine salts] you can deliver nicotine via an electronic cigarette in just the same way it occurs in regular cigarettes."  Source: 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Blood-Nicotine Level by Minutes after First Puff

One of the reasons Juul became so popular was that its founders discovered a way to give people a massive dose of nicotine during initial puffs. As founder Adam Bowen explained, "[We found that] when you combine nicotine with certain organic acids in specific ways [to produce nicotine salts] you can deliver nicotine via an electronic cigarette in just the same way it occurs in regular cigarettes." Source: 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Source: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2018 / CDC / 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

E-Cig Use among U.S. High Schoolers

Source: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2018 / CDC / 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Drugs: Criminalization

The Sociological Cinema

50% of America's Prison Population Jailed through the War on Drugs Follow this link to find a short video and analysis exploring the social history of the war on drugs. via hipsterlibertarian

Although the US has 5% of the world's population, they hold 25% of the world's prison population, largely as a result of the drug war.    Visit www.askleap.com

Although the US has 5% of the world's population, they hold 25% of the world's prison population, largely as a result of the drug war. Visit www.askleap.com

"If you want to understand a society, take a good look at the drugs it uses. And what can this tell you about American culture? Well, look at the drugs we use. Except for pharmaceutical poison, there are essentially only two drugs that Western civilization tolerates: Caffeine from monday to friday to energize you enough to make you a productive member of society, and alcohol from friday to monday to keep you too stupid to figure out the prison that you are living in." ~ Bill Hicks (1961…

"If you want to understand a society, take a good look at the drugs it uses. And what can this tell you about American culture? Well, look at the drugs we use. Except for pharmaceutical poison, there are essentially only two drugs that Western civilization tolerates: Caffeine from monday to friday to energize you enough to make you a productive member of society, and alcohol from friday to monday to keep you too stupid to figure out the prison that you are living in." ~ Bill Hicks (1961…

Drug arrest rates for blacks and whites per 100,000 population, 1972 to 2011.  Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics / FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation UCR

Drug arrest rates for blacks and whites per 100,000 population, 1972 to 2011. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics / FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation UCR

Other Pins

Change in proportion of 15-year olds who have drunk alcohol, 2002-2010  Source: OECD analysis of HBSC data in Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use (2015)

To drink or not to drink? 2002-2010

Change in proportion of 15-year olds who have drunk alcohol, 2002-2010 Source: OECD analysis of HBSC data in Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use (2015)

Source: Pew Research Center

Nearly two thirds see drug addiction as a very big problem

Source: Pew Research Center

Source: RAND Corporation

Drug Spending Has Shifted in the U.S., 2018

Source: RAND Corporation

Source: OECD

One More? Alcohol consumption among adults, 1982 and 2012, litres per year

Source: OECD

In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then they were immediately asked to indicate their favorite brand or report the brand of cigarette they carried in their pocket.  Source: R. J. Reynolds

"More Doctors smoke Camels than any other cigarette," c. 1946.

In an attempt to substantiate the claim in this ad campaign, R.J. Reynolds paid for surveys to be conducted during medical conventions, but the methodology was dubious. Doctors were reportedly gifted free packs of Camel cigarettes, then they were immediately asked to indicate their favorite brand or report the brand of cigarette they carried in their pocket. Source: R. J. Reynolds

Isn't it quite telling that the IAAF, an organization that strongly kicks against the use of performance-enhancing drugs, wants athletes to use drugs that medically alter their production of hormones and thereby limit their natural performance?  ~ @okemzuruoke

Isn't it quite telling that the IAAF, an organization that strongly kicks against the use of performance-enhancing drugs, wants athletes to use drugs that medically alter their production of hormones and thereby limit their natural performance? ~ @okemzuruoke

Mornidine, also known as Pipamazine, was introduced to the U.S. market in 1959 by G. D. Searle & Company. Mornidine was a prescription drug that helped pregnant women cope with morning sickness. As the marketing strategy attests, Mornidine seemed to satisfy the sexist viewpoint that morning sickness was primarily a problem because it interfered with a woman's domestic duties. Mornidine was eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1969, after reports that it caused liver damage.

"Now she can cook breakfast again...when you prescribe new Mornidine," 1959

Mornidine, also known as Pipamazine, was introduced to the U.S. market in 1959 by G. D. Searle & Company. Mornidine was a prescription drug that helped pregnant women cope with morning sickness. As the marketing strategy attests, Mornidine seemed to satisfy the sexist viewpoint that morning sickness was primarily a problem because it interfered with a woman's domestic duties. Mornidine was eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1969, after reports that it caused liver damage.

"Stay fit and slim by taking Amphetamine," 1940

Source: Philip N. Cohen / Centers For Disease Control (CDC)

Drug overdose death rate, 1999-2017

Source: Philip N. Cohen / Centers For Disease Control (CDC)

Source: VinePair

The States That Drink the Most Alcohol in America, 2018

We analyzed data from annual surveys and reports to see who is drinking the most, and where. Does your state rank among the top or bottom imbibers? Learn more in our infographic.

Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Among all tobacco products, middle and high school students use e-cigarettes the most.  Past Month Use of Selected Tobacco Products  Source: University of Michigan, 2014 Monitoring the Future Study

Among all tobacco products, middle and high school students use e-cigarettes the most. Past Month Use of Selected Tobacco Products Source: University of Michigan, 2014 Monitoring the Future Study

Only 14.2% of 12th Graders View E-Cigarette Use as Harmful, Which Is Less Than 5 Students in the Average Class  Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

Only 14.2% of 12th Graders View E-Cigarette Use as Harmful, Which Is Less Than 5 Students in the Average Class Source: Monitoring the Future, 2014; 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey

One of the reasons Juul became so popular was that its founders discovered a way to give people a massive dose of nicotine during initial puffs.  As founder Adam Bowen explained, "[We found that] when you combine nicotine with certain organic acids in specific ways [to produce nicotine salts] you can deliver nicotine via an electronic cigarette in just the same way it occurs in regular cigarettes."  Source: 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Blood-Nicotine Level by Minutes after First Puff

One of the reasons Juul became so popular was that its founders discovered a way to give people a massive dose of nicotine during initial puffs. As founder Adam Bowen explained, "[We found that] when you combine nicotine with certain organic acids in specific ways [to produce nicotine salts] you can deliver nicotine via an electronic cigarette in just the same way it occurs in regular cigarettes." Source: 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Source: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2018 / CDC / 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

E-Cig Use among U.S. High Schoolers

Source: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2018 / CDC / 2019. "Broken: Big Vape," Netflix.

Nearly 1 in 10 reported using an illegal drug in the past month.  Source: The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2015

Illegal Drug Use Has Increased

Nearly 1 in 10 reported using an illegal drug in the past month. Source: The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2015

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