Race: White Terror & Racist Violence

White supremacy first took shape in the West and was exported around the globe. But in the New World racial thinking found especially fertile soil, as it…
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On July 13, 1863, the Civil War Draft Riots began in New York. The riots were the result of whites anxiety about the perception that their wages would be undercut by an influx of black labor from the south in the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation. When stricter draft laws mandated that white men would be compelled to fight for black freedom, the anger boiled over into a riot. Source: Collection of the New-York Historical Society
On July 13, 1863, the Civil War Draft Riots began in New York. White men perceived that their wages would be undercut by an influx of black labor from the South in the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation. Then, when draft laws were passed mandating that white men would be compelled to fight for black freedom in the Civil War, anger boiled over into a riot that targeted black communities. This illustration depicts the first lynching on Clarkson St. at the end of the 1st day.
On July 13, 1863, the Civil War Draft Riots began in New York. White men perceived that their wages would be undercut by an influx of black labor from the South in the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation. Then, when draft laws were passed mandating that white men would be compelled to fight for black freedom in the Civil War, anger boiled over into a riot that targeted black communities. This illustration depicts the first lynching on Clarkson St. at the end of the 1st day.

Race: The Civil War Draft Riots (1863)

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Source: Harper's Weekly, May 26, 1866
The Memphis Massacre of 1866 - "Scenes in Memphis, Tennessee, during the riot-burning a Freeman's School-house."   A report three weeks later by the Freedmen’s Bureau said that the riots had been set off because of a history of mutual antagonism between the police and the African American soldiers in the city. It said that hatred of the black community had been stoked by pro-Confederate newspapers which had depicted the growing black community as a menace to working class whites.
On May 1, 2, and 3, 1866, mobs of white men led by law enforcement attacked black people in the areas near South St. (aka Calhoun & G.E. Patterson). By the end of the attack, the mob had killed an estimated 46 black people; raped several black women; and committed numerous robberies, assaults and arsons. A congressional investigative committee reported that four churches, twelve schools and 91 other dwellings were burned. Although no one was ever prosecuted for this massacre...

Race: The Memphis Massacre (1866)

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On July 30, 1866, Black men, women and children traveled to a Constitutional Convention held at the New Orleans Mechanics' Institute in an effort to press for their right to vote. Blacks were attacked by a gang of whites, and in the end, 44 people were dead and 106 injured. This illustration depicts the scene inside Mechanics Hall where delegates to the reconvened Louisiana Constitutional Convention were killed. Source: Harper’s Weekly / Library of Congress
On July 30, 1866, Black men, women and children traveled to a Constitutional Convention held at the New Orleans Mechanics' Institute in an effort to press for their right to vote. Blacks were attacked by a gang of whites, and in the end, 44 people were dead and 106 were injured. This illustration depicts the killing of black protestors as they try to flee Mechanics Hall. Source: Harper’s Weekly / Library of Congress
"The Riot in New Orleans... the Struggle for the Flag. 900 block Canal Street," a scene depicting the New Orleans Massacre of 1866 - on July 30, 1866, Black men, women & children traveled to a Constitutional Convention held at the Mechanics' Institute in an effort to press for their right to vote. Blacks were attacked by a gang of whites. In the end, there were a total of 150 black casualties, including, 44 dead.

Race: The New Orleans Massacre (1866)

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The Opelousas massacre began as a result of three local white men beating up a white ally of the black community named Emerson Bentley. Bentley's sin was registering blacks to vote for an upcoming election. When rumors spread of Bently's murder, several Blacks came to his defense & held the town under siege for days. Because blacks were banned from owing guns, many were unarmed & about two dozen were eventually arrested & hung. Whites then hunted down Blacks & killed about 200, 9/28/1868.
The Opelousas massacre in New Orleans' St. Landry Parish began as a result of 3 local white men beating a white ally of the black community named Emerson Bentley. The men targeted Bentley for registering blacks to vote. Blacks came to Bentley's defense and held the town under siege for days. About 2 dozen were eventually arrested & hung. Whites then hunted down Blacks in the area, eventually killing about 200, September 28, 1868. Source: New Orleans Republican, October 5, 1968
A handful of people gathered for a vigil commemorating the 152nd anniversary of the "Opelousas massacre," a bloody confrontation during the Reconstruction era that killed an undetermined number of Black Americans. The event, sponsored by the St. Landry NAACP, was held on the steps of the Opelousas Courthouse Monday, Sept, 28, 2020. Photo credit: Scott Clause

Race: The Opelousas Massacre (1868)

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The Danville Riot, Virginia 1883. White conservatives killed seven African Americans before an election, took control of the local government, and ousted African American and white officeholders. — in Danville, Virginia.
In Oct 1883, a group of 28 white merchants and businesses in Danville signed a “Coalition Rule in Danville,” or what became known as the Danville Circular. Published in various newspapers and addressed “To the Citizens of the Southwest & Valley of VA,” the document outlined “the injustice and humiliation to which our white people have been subjected and are daily undergoing by the domination and misrule” Source: Wolfe, Brendan. Danville Riot (1883). (2020, December 07). In Encyclopedia Virginia
White conservatives killed 7 Blacks before an election, took control of the local government, and ousted African American and white officeholders. The city of Danville later convened an investigation of the violence. The Committee of Forty, dominated by white Democrats and including only one Black, heard from 37 witnesses from Nov. 13-21 and concluded that armed Blacks had provoked the shooting... Source: Wolfe, Brendan. Danville Riot (1883). (2020, December 07). In Encyclopedia Virginia.

Race: The Danville Massacre (1883)

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The Carrollton Courthouse Massacre, Mississippi, 1886  Two African Americans charged white men with assault. At the trial a crowd attacked the African Americans in attendance and killed many as they sought to escape. The goal of the rioters was to intimidate African Americans and discourage their political and economic ambitions.  Source: Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture / Photo credit: Mississippi Department of Archives and History
On March 17th, 1866, a mob of whites attacked a group of Blacks seated in the Carrollton, Mississippi courthouse. Ten were killed on the scene and another thirteen died later from their injuries
"A Mississippi Massacre" "Winchester Rifles Take the Place of the Old-time Shotgun" "Thirteen Negroes Killed And Others Wounded While In Attendance At Court" On March 17th, 1866, a mob of whites attacked a group of Blacks seated in the Carrollton, Mississippi courthouse. Ten were killed on the scene and another thirteen died later from their injuries Source: The Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan, March 18, 1886

Race: The Carrollton Courthouse Massacre (1886)

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(6 of 8) 1890: Wounded Knee Massacre, where US troops killed 300 Lakota men, women, and children.  ~ @samswey
This is a view of the slain body of Chief Big Foot, Native American, Miniconjou Lakota Sioux, propped up in the snow on the Wounded Knee battleground.  U. S. soldiers, civilian burial party members stand in the background, December 29, 1890. — at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
This is a civilian burial party standing by their wagon filled with the frozen bodies of Native American Lakota Sioux, in a ravine south of the camp at Wounded Knee Creek. Mounted U.S. Army officers look on from hill above, December 29, 1890. — at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

Race: Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)

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This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer
This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer
"Negro Rule" - This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer

Race: The Wilmington Massacre (1898)

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This image is from a burned district in Springfield, Illinois in the aftermath of the Springfield "race riot" on Friday, August 14, 1908. The riot began when a white crowd gathered outside the Sangamon County Jail, intending to lynch two black prisoners: Joe James, a vagrant accused of killing a white mining engineer, and George Richardson, accused of raping a white woman. When a mob learned the sheriff had preemptively transferred the men out of the city to thwart their efforts...
This image is from a burned district in Springfield, Illinois in the aftermath of the Springfield Massacre on Friday, August 14, 1908. The massacre began when a white crowd gathered outside the Sangamon County Jail, intending to lynch two black prisoners: Joe James, a vagrant accused of killing a white mining engineer, and George Richardson, who was accused of raping a white woman.... Photo credit: Chronicling Illinois
In this image is from a burned district in Springfield, Illinois Black residents survey the damage, Saturday, August 15, 1908. One day earlier the Springfield Massacre began when a white crowd gathered outside the Sangamon County Jail, intending to lynch two black prisoners: Joe James, a vagrant accused of killing a white mining engineer, and George Richardson, who was accused of raping a white woman... Photo credit: Sangamon Valley Collection, Lincoln Library

Race: The Springfield Massacre (1908)

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A mob blocks a street car during the East St. Louis Riot of July 1917. As WWI interfered w/ immigration from E. Europe, factories began hiring black workers. As competition for jobs increased so did racial tensions. On July 1, a group of whites drove thru a black neighborhood, firing a gun. Later, another car drove thru the neighborhood. Blacks fired& killed 2 police officers. The next day, whites burned some 300 houses in a black neighborhood & killed blacks - Photo: U of Mass-Amherst Libraries
Smoke rises from fires set by white mobs in East St. Louis during the riot on July 2, 1917. The caption that ran with this picture on July 3, 1917, in the St. Louis Star notes it was taken the evening of July 2 from Eads Bridge. Rioters burned more than 300 black homes and businesses. At least 39 blacks and nine whites were killed during the rampage, but the total probably was closer to 100... Photo credit: Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Bowen Archives

Race: East St. Louis Massacre (1917)

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(7 of 8) 1919: Elaine "race riot" in Arkansas where a mob of white men shot and killed 100-800 black people "on sight."  ~ @samswey
A black Elaine resident is escorted through the city, likely to makeshift stockades where many Blacks were held. The Elaine Race Massacre began on 9/30/1919 and lasted until 10/7. After Black sharecroppers formed a chapter of the Progressive Farmers & Household Union of America (PFHUA), white responded with violence. The AR governor called in federal troops, who were joined by the Ku Klux Klan, to quell a so-called revolution of heavily armed Blacks. In the end, hundreds of Blacks were murdered.
Crowds like this one at Elaine's main street gathered to welcome the U.S. Army's arrival to the city. The Elaine Race Massacre began on 9/30/1919 and lasted until 10/7. After Black sharecroppers formed a chapter of the Progressive Farmers & Household Union of America (PFHUA), white responded with violence. The AR governor called in federal troops, who were joined by the Ku Klux Klan, to quell a so-called revolution of heavily armed Blacks. In the end, hundreds of Blacks were murdered.

Race: Elaine Massacre (1919)

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"This is a historical account of the destruction of North Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1921 by White racist mobs, jealous by the prosperity of that Black community known as Black Wall Street."  — at North Tulsa.
After the attacks on 9/11, many claimed it was the 1st instance of a terrorist assault from the air on American civilians. Such assertions are only true if one discounts the experiences of Blacks living in Tulsa in 1921. After a rumor spread that a young Black man raped a white woman, a mob of white men formed a lynching gang. The Black community stepped forward to defend the man & an armed confrontation ensued. Later 6 biplanes were dispatched, which dropped incendiary bombs on Black residents.
The worst race riot in U.S. history happened in Tulsa in 1921 when angry white mobs destroyed America's wealthiest black community and killed 300.  On May 30 of that year, a rumor emerged in Tulsa, Oklahoma that a young Black man named Dick Rowland had insulted, or even raped, a white woman near his workplace. Soon thereafter a white mob attempted to lynch Rowland and the hostilities eventually led to the violence and destruction of the black community.

Race: The Black Wall Street (Tulsa) Massacre (1921)

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The ruins of the two-story shanty near Rosewood, Florida, in 1923 where black residents barricaded themselves and fought off a band of whites.   Photo credit: Bettmann / CORBIS
On January 1, 1923 a white mob wiped out the predominantly black town of Rosewood in central Florida due to false allegations made by a white woman. The incident would become known as the Rosewood massacre. Those residents who the mob spared eventually abandoned the town. The initial report of the Rosewood incident presented less than a month after the massacre claimed there was insufficient evidence for prosecution. Thus no one was charged with any of the Rosewood murders.
Racial violence erupted in the small and quiet Rosewood community January 1-7, 1923. Rosewood, a predominantly colored [sic] community, was home to the Bradley, Carrier, Carter, Goins, and Hall families, among others. Residents supported a school taught by Mahulda "Gussie" Brown Carrier, three churches, and a Masonic lodge. Many of them owned their homes, some were business owners, and others worked in nearby Sumner and at the Cummer Lumber Mill. This quiet life came to an end on Jan 1, 1923...

Race: The Rosewood Massacre (1923)

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Did You Ever Learn about the Watsonville riots in your U.S. HIstory Classes?  The Watsonville Riots of 1930 began as a result of anti-Filipino tension in California. At the time, many white men believed that Filipino men were stealing their jobs and their women. Lasting a week, mobs of white men violently beat 20+ Filipino men, vandalized businesses where Filipinos worked, and shot bullets at Filipinos' homes. Fermin Tobera, a 22 year old Filipino man, was shot and killed
During the Watsonville riots, mobs dragged Filipinos from their homes into the streets and beaten. Filipino homes were peppered with bullets. Businesses were threatened and in at least one case, blown up. Neighborhoods were destroyed.   In this image Filipinos pose before the ruins of their bombed-out clubhouse in Stockton, California in 1930.  Photo credit: Filipino American National Historical Society — in Stockton, California.
On January 1930 in Watsonville, California, a mob of 500 white men attacked Filipino farmworkers after Filipino men danced with white women at a dance. Politicians called for Filipinos to be deported. A law was passed banning marriages between Filipinos and white people. Congress reduced Filipino immigration to only 50 people per year. Artist: Angelo Lopez, 2020

Race: The Watsonville Massacre (1930)

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On June 20, 1943 a Detroit race riot erupted at Belle Isle amusement park. This photo of two white youths holding a badly beaten black man was taken on June 21.  After a population explosion in Detroit led to a severe housing crisis, a riot erupted when blacks and white started fighting at a Belle Isle amusement park. In total, nine whites and 25 blacks lost their lives during the two days of rioting.  Photo credit: Associated Press — in Detroit, Michigan.
On June 20, 1943 a Detroit race riot erupted at Belle Isle amusement park. This bloodied African American man was one of many blacks rounded up following the race riots in Detroit.  After a population explosion in Detroit led to a severe housing crisis, a riot erupted when blacks and white started fighting at a Belle Isle amusement park. In total, nine whites and 25 blacks lost their lives during the two days of rioting.  Photo credit: Gordon Coster / Time & Life Pictures / Getty— in Detroit, MI
On June 20, 1943 a Detroit race riot erupted at Belle Isle amusement park.  After a population explosion in Detroit led to a severe housing crisis, a riot erupted when blacks and white started fighting at a Belle Isle amusement park. In total, nine whites and 25 blacks lost their lives during the two days of rioting. — in Detroit, Michigan.

Race: The Detroit Riot (1943)

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Gangs of American sailors and marines armed with sticks chased and beat children, teenagers, and youths who wore zoot suits in Los Angeles, June 1943. Most of the violence was directed toward Mexican Americans. The even became know as the Zoot Suit riots, but some have argued it should be called the Sailor riots. Photo credit: Getty
In 1943 in Los Angeles, roving gangs of U.S. servicemen attacked and stripped Mexican Americans they spotted wearing Zoot suits. The two young men on the ground were victims; many were arrested and jailed. The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of racial attacks in Los Angeles, California, launched by white servicemen and civilians against Mexican Americans in zoot suits. The attackers thought wearing zoot suits was unpatriotic, given that the U.S. was engaged in World War II. The Zoot Suit Riots
Soldier, sailors and marines who rioted and roamed the street of Los Angeles, June 7, 1943, looking for "hoodlums" in zoot suits. This image shows the servicemen stopping a streetcar during their search. The riots are typically referred to as the Zoot Suit Riots, but as the Cuban American poet and author Margarita Engle noted, they should be called the Sailor Riots. Photo credit: AP

Race: The Sailor (Zoot Suit) Riots (1943)

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On September 15th, 1963, members of a KKK group planted a box of dynamite with a time delay under the steps of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Alabama. The blast killed four young African American women--Addie Mae (14), Denise McNair (11), Cynthia Wesley (14), and Carole Robertson (14). Following the attack, riots broke out in many black neighborhoods in Birmingham. An investigation later concluded that as many as 15 sticks of dynamite were used to make the bomb.
The bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in 1963 killed four young girls preparing to worship. In this image, mourners are shown attending funeral services for Carol Robertson, one of four girls killed.  Photo credit: AP
A bomb killed four African-American girls and severely damaged Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1963, Birmingham Alabama. Photo credit: AP

Race: The 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing (1963)

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Troops march through Orangeburg before the massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley
Tanks Line up in Orangeburg before Massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley
Removing the wounded in the aftermath of the Orangeburg massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley

Race: The Orangeburg Massacre (1968)

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A policeman stands guard on Pine Street in West Philadelphia near the remains of 61 row houses days after they were destroyed by fire on May 13, 1985, when police dropped explosives into a house occupied by members of the radical group MOVE.  Photo credit: George Widman / AP
On May 13, 1985 police came to a house occupied by people from MOVE. There were reportedly over 100 police who demanded the MOVE members come outside, but the members refused. The police then began throwing tear gas and opening fire at the house, and MOVE shot back. After several hours, the police called for a helicopter to drop a bomb on the house.   This image is from the neighborhood where the compound of the radical group MOVE was located.  Photo credit: Peter Morgan / AP
This image is from a confrontation and MOVE in 1978. In 1985, The Philadelphia Police ordered a bomb strike on members of the MOVE organization living in the middle of a heavily populated black neighborhood. As the family members ran out of the burning house, they were repeatedly shot at and many of them were either killed or forced to run back in.

Race: The MOVE Headquarters Bombing (1985)

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After decades denouncing Hitler and Nazi Germany as pure evil, America ignores its symbols on our own soil.  Artist: Alex Graudins
Chanting "White lives matter," "You will not replace us," and "Jews will not replace us," several hundred white nationalists and white supremacists carrying torches marched through the University of Virginia, on August 11, 2017.  **Note: in posting this photo, TSC is not celebrating Nazism or white supremacy. On the contrary, we post this photo to remind people that both the ideologies and expressions of white supremacy remains a threat to liberty and justice today. Photo: Evelyn Hockstein
"I dissaprove of what you say, but I will defend to death your right to say it"  Artist: Social Justice Ninja

Race: "Unite the Right" Charlottesville Rally (2017)

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This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer North Carolina, Norman, Craven County, Democratic Party, Wilmington, North, Eastern, Road Work, Carolina
"Negro Road Overseer in Craven County. Scene on the road where white men are working..." 1898
This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer
This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer Black Beast, Cartoon Drawings, Cartoonist, White Supremacy, Pop Culture Art, Black Republicans, Political Cartoons, New Century
"A Warning. Get Back! We Will Not Stand It" 1898
This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer
black and white photo of sailors walking in formation with batons on their heads,
American sailors and marines armed with sticks beat people who wore zoot suits in Los Angeles, 1943
Gangs of American sailors and marines armed with sticks chased and beat children, teenagers, and youths who wore zoot suits in Los Angeles, June 1943. Most of the violence was directed toward Mexican Americans. The even became know as the Zoot Suit riots, but some have argued it should be called the Sailor riots. Photo credit: Getty
a group of people standing and sitting next to each other
In 1943 in Los Angeles, roving gangs of U.S. servicemen attacked and stripped Mexican Americans they spotted wearing Zoot suits. The two young men on the ground were victims; many were arrested and jailed. The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of racial attacks in Los Angeles, California, launched by white servicemen and civilians against Mexican Americans in zoot suits. The attackers thought wearing zoot suits was unpatriotic, given that the U.S. was engaged in World War II. The Zoot Suit Riots
an old black and white photo of people walking in front of a train at night
Soldier, sailors and marines who rioted and roamed the street of Los Angeles, June 7, 1943
Soldier, sailors and marines who rioted and roamed the street of Los Angeles, June 7, 1943, looking for "hoodlums" in zoot suits. This image shows the servicemen stopping a streetcar during their search. The riots are typically referred to as the Zoot Suit Riots, but as the Cuban American poet and author Margarita Engle noted, they should be called the Sailor Riots. Photo credit: AP
"Negro Rule" - This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer Vintage, Cartoon, Vampire, Negro, Artist, Fear
"Negro Rule," 1898
"Negro Rule" - This is one of a series of cartoons drawn to stoke fears about Wilmington’s Black citizens between August and November of 1898. The purpose of the cartoon was to “create a rape scare, demonize and humiliate Black men and women, spread a violent white supremacist ideology and reclaim the North Carolina Legislature for the Democratic Party,” which circulated widely in eastern North Carolina. Artist: Norman Ethre Jennett, News and Observer
U.S. white supremacy morphed after the Civil War. It never ended.
an iphone screen with the text black massacres on it and several locations marked in red
Your homework assignment for today: Pick one & research
Your homework assignment for today: Pick one & research -- Oh, good morning.
black and white photograph of men in uniforms marching down the street at night with lights on
Troops March Through Orangeburg before Massacre, 1968
Troops march through Orangeburg before the massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley
Tanks Line up in Orangeburg before Massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley Scsu Bulldogs, Alpha Xi, Epic Story, Global Citizen, Young Men, Civil Rights Movement, African Diaspora, African American History, Power Plant
The Orangeburg Massacre, February 1968
Tanks Line up in Orangeburg before Massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley
Removing the wounded in the aftermath of the Orangeburg massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley American History, Historical Facts, Jim Crow, Photo Essay, African American, The Globe, State College
Removing the wounded from the Orangeburg massacre, February 1968
Removing the wounded in the aftermath of the Orangeburg massacre, 1968 Photo credit: Bill Barley
"Doesn't anyone give a damn about the Murder in Orangeburg!" selection from flyer announcing a meeting of the W.E.B. DuBois Club at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1968, Raymond K. O'Cain papers, 1967-1969, Source: South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina. Chicago, The University Of Chicago, University Of South Carolina, South Carolina, Chicago Illinois, Chicago Chicago, Library University, Illinois, Meeting
Flyer for meeting after the Orangeburg massacre, 1968
"Doesn't anyone give a damn about the Murder in Orangeburg!" selection from flyer announcing a meeting of the W.E.B. DuBois Club at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1968, Raymond K. O'Cain papers, 1967-1969, Source: South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina.
an old document with writing on it
SNCC's Orangeburg Massacre Fact Sheet, 1968
Fact sheet created by SNCC to circulate information about the protests and shooting that occurred February 1968 in Orangeburg, South Carolina, Cleveland L. Sellers Papers. Source: Avery Research Center
Cleveland Sellers stands beside historic marker on S.C. State University campus at the 2000 Orangeburg Massacre memorial, Orangeburg, South Carolina. Photo credit: Cecil Williams State Police, American Colleges
The Orangeburg Massacre, 1968
Cleveland Sellers stands beside historic marker on S.C. State University campus at the 2000 Orangeburg Massacre memorial, Orangeburg, South Carolina. Photo credit: Cecil Williams
an advertisement with two men standing next to each other and the words did you learn about the warsonville riots in your u s history classes?
Did You Ever Learn about the Watsonville riots in your U.S. HIstory Classes? The Watsonville Riots of 1930 began as a result of anti-Filipino tension in California. At the time, many white men believed that Filipino men were stealing their jobs and their women. Lasting a week, mobs of white men violently beat 20+ Filipino men, vandalized businesses where Filipinos worked, and shot bullets at Filipinos' homes. Fermin Tobera, a 22 year old Filipino man, was shot and killed